International Research Conference for Globalization and Sustainability

August 14-16, 2012, Sarabia Manor Hotel, Iloilo City Philippines

The Influence of Verbal Rewards on Reading Achievement of Grade VI Learners in Diclum Elementary School,Tobias Fornier, Antique.

Submitted by: Terence Dave S. Pelingon Email: terence.pelingon@yahoo.com
University/Organization: West Visayas State University - College of Arts and Sciences Location: La Paz, Iloilo City, Philippines

This study determined the influence of verbal rewards on reading achievement of grade six learners in Diclum Elementary School, Tobias Fornier, Antique, Philippines utilizing the post-test only control group design.

The study was conducted form August 1 to September 23, 2005 consisting of 14 class sessions in seven consecutive weeks. Thirty-four grade six learners were randomly selected to become subjects of the study. They were match-paired in terms of IQ levels. By using the lottery technique, half of the subjects were assigned to the experimental group and the other half, to the control group.

Both groups took up similar subject matters in the reading component of their English subject in two separate class periods under a single teacher. The experimental group was given verbal rewards by their teacher in their reading classes while the control group was not given such rewards by the same teacher in their reading classes. A tally sheet for verbal rewards was given to every learner in the experimental group to ensure they received at least one verbal rewards in every session. A researcher-made reading achievement test was used to gather the data needed.

The data were analyzed using the means and standard deviations. Inferential statistics used was the t-tst for independent samples, set at 5% level of significance. Findings revealed that, in general, the grade six learners had a “Satisfactory” level of reading achievement. The grade six learners in the experimental group attained a “Very Satisfactory” level of reading achievement, while their counterparts in the control group attained a “Satisfactory” level of reading achievement.

There was a significant difference between the performance in the reading test of learners who were given verbal rewards in their classes and those who were not given such rewards. The verbal rewards had positively influenced the learners’ reading achievement and were found to be effective in teaching reading.

“AWARENESS OF PEACE EDUCATION KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, VALUES AND SKILLS (KAVS) OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS”

Submitted by: GUILLER P. PENDON Email: gppendon@yahoo.com
University/Organization: West Visayas State University-Janiuay Campus Location: Janiuay,Iloilo

Abstract
The present study was undertaken to find out the level of awareness of pre-service teachers classified according to course, sex and grade point average (GPA) on peace education knowledge, attitudes, values and skills (KAVS). The respondents of the study were the 80 pre-service teachers of WVSU-Janiuay Campus who were chosen through stratified sampling. Data were gathered with the aid of peace education awareness questionnaire-checklist adapted from Castro & Galace (2008). This study utilized the descriptive design to collect, analyze and classify data on the level of awareness of the pre-service teachers on peace education KAVS. The combined BEED and BSEd pre-service teachers were aware of peace education knowledge, attitudes, values and skills areas, and when classified as to course the BEED were aware while the BSED were very aware. Both male and female were aware. Those with high GPA were very aware while those with average and low GPA were aware of the peace education KAVS. As an entire group, the attitudes and values scores of the respondents were aware and when grouped according to course, it showed that BEED and BSED were very aware. Both males and females were aware. Those with high GPA and average GPA’s were very aware and those with low GPA’s were aware of peace education attitudes and values. Pre-service teachers were aware of peace education skills. When combined as to course, the BEED were aware while the BSED were very aware. Both males and females were very aware. Those with high and average GPA’s were very aware and those with low GPA’s were aware of peace education skills.

Paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa Pasalitang Pakikipagtalastasan Ng mga Mag-aaral sa Kalinga-Apayao State College

Submitted by: Janette P. Calimag Email: janette_calimag@yahoo.com
University/Organization: Kalinga-Apayao State College Location: Bulanao,Tabuk City

PAG-UULAT NA PANANALIKSIK
“ANG PAGGAMIT NG WIKANG FILIPINO SA PASALITANG PAKIKIPAGTALASTASAN NG MGA MAG-AARAL SA UNANG TAON NG INSTITUTE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES NG KALINGA-APAYAO STATE COLLEGE”

Ni
Janette P. Calimag
Buod
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay tungkol sa kasanayan sa paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan ng mga mag-aaral sa unang taon ng Institute of Arts and Sciences ng Kalinga-Apayao State College ,taong panunuran 2011-2012.
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay gaganapin sa lahat ng mga mag-aaral sa unang taon ng ng Institute of Arts and Sciences ng Kalinga-Apayao State College na siyang pagkukunan ng datos at pagtutuunan ng pansin.
Sa pag-aaral na ito,upang makalikom at makakuha ng mga datos ang mananaliksik,gumamit ng talatanungan bilang instrument o kasangkapan ng mga datos. Ang talatanungang ito ay maglalaman ng mga tanong batay sa katotohanan upang sa ganoon ay makakuha ng sapat na impormasyon tungkol sa kalagayan ng mga tagatugon.
Ang talatanungang gagamitin ay may dalawang bahagi.Ang unang bahagi nito ay ang mga katanungan tungkol sa katangiang personal ng mga tagatugon. Ang ikalawang bahagi naman ay mga katanungan tungkol sa kasanayang pagpapahayag na pasalita ng mga mag-aaral sa uang taon at ang antas ng mga kalalang suliraning nararanasan ng mga mag-aaral sa pagpapahayag na pasalita.
Maliban sa talatanungan, makikipanayam din ang mananaliksik sa mga tagatugon upang matiyak ang katapatan ng kanilang mga sagot.
Upang makabuo ng talatanungan,ang unang hakbang na ginawa ng mananaliksik ay ang pagbasa ng iba’t-ibang aklat at lathalaing nauukol sa kasanayang pagpapahayag Filipino. Ang mga yaring tesis ay di-kinaligtaang bigyang pansin lalo na sa mga tesis na may kaugnayan sa kanyang pag-aaral para sa karagdagang kaalaman at impormasyon kung paano at ano ang ilalagay sa talatanungan.Inihango rin niya ang ilang katanungan sa tesis ni Sadao tungkol sa kakayahang pagsalita ng mga mag-aaral sa mataas na paaralan ng Calanasan Apayao.
Ang mananaliksik ay nakipanayam din sa mga ilang guro na nagtuturo sa Filipino,gayon din na hihingi ng payo sa ilang guro na nakapagtapos na sa pag-aaral sa gradwado at tagamasid at sususriin ang mga pala-palagay ng mga guro sa klase tungkol sa kalagayan ng pagtuturo sa asignaturang Filipino.Sumangguni rin siya sa kanyang tagapayo para mapaunlad ang ginawang talatanungan.Ang katanungang binuo at isinagawa ay dumaan sa maraming pagbabagu-bago at pagsasaayos hanggang sa maging akma at angkop sa isinagawang pag-aaral.

Layunin ng mananaliksik na matuklas ang paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan ng mga mag-aaral sa unang taon ng Institute of Arts and Sciences ng KASC.Ang matuklasan ang antas ng kasanayan sa paggamit ng Wikang Filipino sa Pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan ng mga mag-aaral .Ang matuklasan ang antas ng kalalaan ng suliranin sa paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan ng mga mag-aaral.

Kabanata 1

PANIMULA

Ang tao, bukod sa talino ay ganap na biniyayaan ng Diyos ng kakayahang makapagsalita.Anupat ang naging saltik ng kanyang dila ay tinawag na wika.Ang wikang sapul nang matutuhan niyang sambitin ay naging napakahalaga kahit ito’y naging isang pinak-karaniwang gamitin niya sa araw-araw dahil ito ang nag-uudyok sa kanyang makipagkapwa.
Ngunit ano man ang iyong nakagisnang wika marapat lamang na tangkilikin natin at gamitin ang ating wikang pambansa sapagkat dito nagsisimula ang pagkakaugnay-ugnay at pagkakaisa ng mga mamamayan ng isang bansa.
Higit kanino man ang naging Pangulong Manuel Luis Quezon ang lalong masigasig at walang pag-aatubili sa pagpupunyagi’t pagtataguyod upang magkaroon ng Wikang Pambansa.Sa kanyang walang kapantay na pagsusumikap, siya’y tinaguriang Ama ng Wikang Pambansa.”kalabisan nang liwanagin pa”anya “ang pahayag na ang isang bayang bumubuo sa isang kabansaan at isang estado ay magkaroon ng isang wikang sinasalita at nauunawaan ng lahat. Ito’y nasa pinaka-matibay na buklod na bumubigkis sa bayan at nagpapaunlad sa ipagkakaisa ng mga pambansang mithiin, lunggati at damdamin.
Ang pagkakroon ng isang Wikang Pambansa ay malinaw na nakasaad sa saligang batas 1978 ay matiyak na tadhana tungkol sa wika at ito ay matatagpuan sa Artikulo XIV,Seksyon 6 at Seksyon 7.
Ang wikang pambansa ng Pilipinas,samantalang nalilinang,ito’y dapat ipagyabang at pagyamanin sa umuunlad na Wika sa Filipino at ibang Wika. Alinsunod sa mga tadhanang batas at sang-ayon sa nararapat na maaring ipasya ng kongreso,dapat maghanda ng mga hakbangin ang pamahalaan upang ibunsod at puspusang itaguyod ang paggamit ng Filipino bilang panturo sa alinmang edukasyon.Seksyon 7,ukol sa mga layunin ng komunikasyon at pagtuturo,ang opisyal na wika sa Pilipinas ay Filipino at hanggang ang batas ay hindi pa nagtatadhana ng iba.
Maraming mga hakahaka at katanungan kung bakit tinawag na Filipino at hindi Pilipino.Nakagisnan na nating Pilipino ang wikang pambansang itinuturo sa mga paaralan.Lahat ng mag-aaral ay inaasahang gumamit ng wikang ito.
Marami ang tumututol dito sapagka’t ang Pilipino na siyang Wikang Pambansa ay batay lamang sa Tagalog.Kung gayon ang Pilipino’y di-angkop sa buong Pilipinas sapagkat mayroon tayong Ilokano,Bikolano,Bisaya at iba pang pulutong ng mga etniko na hindi naman natin maipagkakaila na sila’y di mga Pilipino.Sa paggamit ng Pilipino na batay sa Tagalog,ang mga di-Tagalog ay nakadarama ng damdaming kakulangan o ng damdaming napapailalim sa mga Tagalog. Nadarama nila ang panibugho na sila’y dayuhan sa isa’t isa.
Lubhang mahalaga ang bagay na ito kaya’t noong Kombensiyong Konstitusyonal noong 1971, isang probisyon tungkol sa Wikang Pambansa ang pinagtibay (Nobyembre 31, 1972). Ayon dito, ang kapulungang Bansa ay gagawa ng mga hakbang tungo sa pagpapaunlad at paggamit ng Wikang Pambansa na kikilalaning Filipino. Sa bagay na ito, ang dating Pilipino na siyang Wikang Pambansa ay tinatawag nang Filipino ngayong napagtibay na ang Bagong Saligang-Batas.
Isang paraang unibersal ng pagpapaunlad ng Filipino ang iminungkahi ng mga lingguwista ng U.P. 9C.Lopez,E. Constantino,G.G. Paz at E.Cruz). Inaasahang ito’y magiging katugunan sa suliranin ng Pilipinas sa Wikang Pambansa.Ang “universal approach” na gagamitin ay naglalayong magpaunlad ng wikang pambansa para sa Pilipinas na hindi lamang batay sa Tagalog, kundi batay sa maraming wikain ng Pilipinas kasama ang mga salitang banyaga na naging bahagi na ng ating Wikang Pambansa. Ang paraang ito’y nagpapakita ng pagiging dinamiko ng isang wika. Di-lamang iisa ang dapat maging estilo tulad ng Tagalog;di-dapat maging “rigid”, artipisyal at panlibro lamang ang isang wika.
Sa pamamagitan ng Filipino bilang wikang panturo tayo’y higit na nagkakaunawaan bilang mga mamamayang Pilipino – Tagalog,Ilokano,Bisaya,lahat! Ang Ingles din ay wikang panturo ilan pang panahon. Magiging “foreign language” na lamang ito tulad ng Spanish.Sa sinasabing kailangan natin ang Ingles bilang kawing sa internasyonal na pamumuhay,dapat nating isiping ilan lamang porsiyento sa mga Pilipino ang nakikipag-ugnayan sa internasyonal na daigdig.
Sa mga kabataan ngayon ano ba ang istatus ng paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan? Gaano ba kadalas gamitin ito? kadalasan dahil sa hindi paggamit ng wikang Filipino unti-unti itong nawawalan ng saysay,at nahihirapang bigkasin ng mga salita lalong-lalo na sa larangan ng pagsasalita gamit ang wikang Filipino.Naniniwala akong ang isang wika hindi man ito ang iyong nakagisnan o nakasanayan basta ito ay madalas at mula sa pusong paggamit at pagmamalaki natututunan natin at nagiging kaaya-aya ito sa pandinig nino man. Nagkakaroon lamang tayo ng suliranin ng paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pakikipagtalastasan sa kadahilanang mas naiimpluwensyahan tayo ng banyagang salita at dahil dito ito na ang mas lantaran at kilala at mas nakakapalagayang loob na gamitin .Hindi masamang matutuhan ang banyagang salita gaya ng Ingles kung ito ay ginagamit lamang natin na pangalawang wika at nangunguna parin ang wikang Filipino.
Ang suliranin ng Wikang Pambansa at ng wikang Ingles ay di napakapayak o hindi suliranin lamang ng kung dapat o hindi dapat isali ang imno nasyonal sa Wikang Pambansa.Hindi suliranin lamang ng sa kung Ingles o sa Tagalog dapat umawit ang isang lumalahok sa paligsahan ng Hamon sa Kampeon o sa Tawag ng Tanghalan.
Ang suliranin ng dalawang wika’y may malalim na kahulugan sa ating mga pagsisikap na pambansa.Sa ating ekonomiya,pulitika,lipunan,edukasyon,kultura,at panitikan.
Totoo na ang pagkatuto ng ating mga mamamayan ng mga wikang Ingles at Kastila ay nagbukas sa kanila ng naiibang daigdig at ng mabibihirang mga pagkakataon sa buhay. Ngunit ang mga biyayang ito’y sampatak na tubig lamang sa gitna ng dagat kung tatakalin. Ang suliraning nilikha ng abneturang ito’y nauwi sa bitak ng panahong nakahaya sa gitna ng lisyang pananagano sa kasiyahan.
Ang paggamit ng mga nasa itaas ng Wikang Kastila,noong una, at ng Wikang Ingles, nitong mga huling panahon,ay lumikha ng guwang sa komunikasyon.Ito ang isang dahilan kung bakit ang pamahalaan ay di nauunawaan,sa kabila ng pagsisiskap nitong maihatid sa bayan ang mga impormasyong makatutulong sa unawaan, at sa pagpapaunlad ng katayuan sa buhay ng sambayanan,mangyari pa.Ang matataas na pinuno’y mga dayuhan sa kanilang mga kababayan. Gayon din ang nangyari at nangyayari pa sa mga palaisip na nagsasalita sa wikang malayo sa karanasan ng masa.
Sa kabilang dako,ang masa’y kapos sa kakayahan sa pakikipagtalakayan sa kanilang mga pinunong marurunong at naghahawak ng pagpapasya. Kinakailangan
“Ang Wikang Filipino”, ani Pangulong Ferdinand E. Marcos,”ay para sa ating pambansang pangangailangan – bilang buklod sa pagkakaisa at tatak n gating kaangkinang pambansa at ang Ingles ay para sa ating kaangkinang pambansa at ang Ingles ay para sa ating pakikipagtalastasang pandaigdig.”
Dahil dito,lahat ay dapat isaisip ang sinabi ni Gat Jose Rizal,”Ang wika ay siyang kaluluwa ng bansa” Ang Wikang Filipino ay pambansang kaluluwa. Ito ay nagpapakilala na tayo’y tunay na mga Pilipino.

IV. Kahalagahan ng Pag-aaral
Ang pag-aaral sa paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan sa mga mag-aaral sa Institute of Arts and Sciences ay pakikinabangan ng mga sumusunod.
Sa mga Administrador: Bilang tagaamahala ng akademya,ang resulta ng pananaliksik na ito ay magsisilbing gabay sa lalong ikabubuti at ika-uunlad hindi lamang ang paaralan bagkos higit sa lahat sa mga guro.
Sa mga Magulang: Ang pananaliksik na ito ay nagsisilbing instrumento kung ito ay susundin at gagamitin ng wasto sa lalong pagpapayabong ng wikang Filipino.Sa ikakabuti ng kanilang mga anak.
Sa mga Mag-aaral: Layunin nitong ipadama sa kanila ang tunay na kahalagahan ng Wikang Filipino bilang pagkakakilala ng pagka-Pilipino.
Sa Mga Guro ng Filipino: Ang kalalabasan ng pag-aaral na ito ay magiging pangganyak sa kanila sa pagtuturo upang lalong maging epektibo ang pamamaraan at istratehiyang ginagamit sa pagtuturo ng Filipino para sa ika-uunlad ng mga mag-aaral sa larangan ng pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan gamit ang Wikang Filipino.
Sa Mananaliksik: Ang kalabasan ng Pag-aaral na ito ay nagsisilbing gabay sa pagpili ng kanilang istratehiya, pamamaraan at mga karagdagang gawaing mag-aaral para sa dekalidad na serbisyo para sa kanilang mga mag-aaral.

Pamamaraang ginamit
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay ginamitan ng paraang paglalarawan o kaya ang “descriptive method”.Matiyagang naglikom ng mga impormasyon at masuring mabuti ang mga kalagayan ng mga mag-aaral ukol sa kanilang kasanayan sa pagpapahayag ng pasalita sa mga mag-aaral sa unang taon ng Institute of Arts and Sciences ng Kalinga-Apayao State College.
Layunin ng mananaliksik na matuklasan ang mga impormasyon at masuring mabuti ang tungkol sa natatanging katangian ng mga mag-aaral, ang natatanging kasanayan sa paggamir ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan ng mga mag-aaral at matuklasan din ang antas ng kalalaan ng suliranin sa paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan mga mag-aaral.

Konseptwal na Balangkas
Ang mananaliksik ay naniniwala sa konseptong ang taong sanay at mahusay sa pagsasalita ay magtatagumpay at magdudulot ng kaunlaran sa lahat ng aspekto ng buhay.
Samakatwid, kailangan nating pag-ibayuhin ang kaalaman sa pagpapahayag na gamit ang wikang Filipino upang mayroon tayong malilikom na mahalagang impormasyon, ideya o kaisipan na siyang tulay ng ating paghakbang tungo sa ikatatagumpay ng buhay.Kailangan maiagpang an gating kaisipan at pag-uunawa sa mabilis na takbo ng panahon at mga nagaganap sa ating kapaligiran.Kailangan ding mag-ibayo an gating kasanayan upang maharap ang hamon ng mga pagbabago at kaunlaran.

Ang kabataan ang pag-asa ng ating bansa sa hinaharap.Dahil dito kailangan ng bawat mag-aaral na matutuhan ang mabisang pakikipagtalastasan sa paraang pasalita. Pahusayin ang mga kasanayang ito upang mapabilis ang pag-usad ng pagkatuto sa larangan ng komunikasyon.Hindi kaila sa atin na ang mag-aaral na palasalita ay matatag ang kalooban at mahilig makihalubilo sa kapwa. Samantalang ang mag-aaral na hindi nalinang ang kakayahan sa pakikipagtalastasan ay mahiyain at kung maari ay ayaw makipag-ugnayan sa kapwa. Ang kawalang kakayahang ito ng pangkaraniwang mag-aaral ay umaapekto sa lahat ng sitwasyon sa buhay nila buhat sa tahanan,sa paaralan,sa simbahan,sa komunidad,sa lipunan at maging sa labas ng bansa.Malungkot na isipin na hindi aangat ang buhay ng ganitong uri ng mag-aaral. Anupa’t naiiwan sa pag-unlad.

Sa araw-araw na Gawain ng tao, lumilitaw ang pakikipagtalastasan o pakikipag-ugnayan sa kanyang kapwa.Tulad halimbawa sa loob ng silid-aralan ang pagpapaliwanag ng guro ng mga aralin habang nakikinig ang mga mag-aaral sa kanya at pagkatapos ay magkaroon ng inter-aksyon batay sa paksa na kung saan ang guro ay magtatanong at ang mag-aaral ay sasagot. Ito ay isang pakikipagtalastasan. Gayun din naman sa lansangan o sa palengke, ang transaksiyon na nagaganap sa mga mamimili o sa mga nagtatanong upang magkaroon ng ugnayan, ito ay isang paraan ng pakikipagtalastasan. Sa tanggapan o sa opisina ng mga kawani at kung may mga kliyente silang kapapanayamin o kakausapin, ito ay isang pakikipagtalastasan.Ito ang nagpapatunay na ang pakikipagtalastasan ay isang gawaing pang-araw-araw.

Ang mabisang pakikipagtalastasan ay maaring makapagpabago ng isang paninindigan o kilos at maari ring makahikayat ng paninindigan gaya ng mga kandidatong nagbibitiw ng mga magagandang pangako upang makuha ang panig ng mga tagatanggap ng mensahe. Ito rin ay nakakatulong sa pagbuo, pag-unlad pagbabago at pagkalikha ng maayos at mataas na antas ng ugnayan ng isipan,damdamin at saloobin.Ito ay sining ng pagpapahayag na may kaugnayan sa pagiging, malikhain sa paggamit ng wika na may kaayusan at kawastuhan at paglinang sa mga kasanayang pakikinig,pagsulat,pagbasa at pagsasalita.Lahat ng mga ito, samakatwid ay nagpapatunay na ang mabisang pakikipagtalastasan ay proseso ng paghatid ng kaalaman,ideya o mensahe kung saan ang tagapakinig ay lubos na nakauunawa sa kahulugang nais ipahatid ng lubos na nakauunawa sa kahulugan ng nais ipahatid ng nakikipagtalastasan.

Ang pagsalita ay ginagawa upang maipahayag ang mga ideya at kaisipan sa kapwa sa ibat-ibang kadahilanan,maaring nagsasalita tayo o nagsusulat upang maiparating ang mahalagang impormasyon at mensaheng nais nating ibahagi upang hindi tayo magsisi kung sakaling hindi natin naiparating gamit ang ating nagiisang wikang pambansa ang wikang Filipino na siyang sumasalamin sa pagiging isang tunay na Pilipino.
Sa pag-aaral na ito ang naging malayang baryabol ay ang antas ng kasanayan sa paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan at ang antas ng kalalaan ng suliranin sa paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan.
Ang di- malayang baryabol ay ang paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan ng mga mag-aaral sa unang taon ng Institute of arts and Sciences ng Kalinga-Apayao State College.
Samantalang ang moderator na baryabol ay ang kasarian,antas ng pamumuhay at kaligiran ng mga mag-aaral.

MALAYANG BARYABOL
1. Antas ng kasanayan ng paggamit ng Wikang Filipino sa pasalitang Pakikipagtalastasan.

2. Antas ng kalalaan ng suliraning nararanasan ng mga mag-aaral sa Paggamit ng Wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan.
.

DI-MALAYANG BARYABOL

ANG Paggamit ng Wikang Filipino sa Pasalitang Pakikipagtalastasan ng Mga Mag-aaral sa Unang Taon ng Institute of Arts and Sciences ng Kalinga-Apayao State College

MODEREYTOR NA BARYABOL

A.Kasarian
B.Antas ng Pamumuhay
C.Kaligiran

Figure 1: Ang Paradima ng Pag-aaral

PAGLALAHAD NG SULIRANIN
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay naglalayong masiyasat ang antas ng Paggamit ng Wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan ng mga mag-aaral sa unang taon ng Institute of Arts and Sciences ng Kalinga-Apayao State College.

Inihahanap ng mga akmang kasagutan ang mga sumusunod na katanungan:
1. Ano ang antas ng kasanayan sa paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan ng mga mag-aaral sa unang taon?
1.1 Mayroon bang makabuluhang pagkakaiba ang antas ng kasanayan sa paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan ng mga mag-aaral sa unang taon ayon sa modereytor na baryabol?
2. Ano ang antas ng kalalaan ng suliranin ng mga mag-aaral sa paggamit ng Wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan?
2.1 Mayroon bang makabuluhang pagkakaiba ang antas ng kalalaan ng suliranin ng mga mag-aaral sa paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan ng mga mag-aaral sa unang taon ayon sa modereytor na baryabol?

Walang Bisang pala-palagay

Ang mga sumusunod na walang bisang pala-palagay ay siyang nagbibigay patnubay sa pag-aaral na ito.
1. Walang makabuluhang pagkakaiba ang antas ng kasanayan sa paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan ng mga mag-aaral ayon sa kasarian,antas ng pamumuhay at kaligiran.
2. Walang makabuluhang pagkakaiba ang antas ng kalalaan ng suliranin sa paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan ng mga mag-aaral ayon sa kasarian,antas ng pamumuhay at kaligiran.

Kahalagahan ng Pag-aaral

Ang pag-aaral sa paggamit ng wikang Filipino sa pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan sa mga mag-aaral sa Institute of Arts and Sciences ay pakikinabangan ng mga sumusunod.
Sa mga Administrador: Bilang tagaamahala ng akademya,ang resulta ng pananaliksik na ito ay magsisilbing gabay sa lalong ikabubuti at ika-uunlad hindi lamang ang paaralan bagkos higit sa lahat sa mga guro.
Sa mga Magulang: Ang pananaliksik na ito ay nagsisilbing instrumento kung ito ay susundin at gagamitin ng wasto sa lalong pagpapayabong ng wikang Filipino.Sa ikakabuti ng kanilang mga anak.
Sa mga Mag-aaral: Layunin nitong ipadama sa kanila ang tunay na kahalagahan ng Wikang Filipino bilang pagkakakilala ng pagka-Pilipino.
Sa Mga Guro ng Filipino: Ang kalalabasan ng pag-aaral na ito ay magiging pangganyak sa kanila sa pagtuturo upang lalong maging epektibo ang pamamaraan at istratehiyang ginagamit sa pagtuturo ng Filipino para sa ika-uunlad ng mga mag-aaral sa larangan ng pasalitang pakikipagtalastasan gamit ang Wikang Filipino.
Sa Mananaliksik: Ang kalabasan ng Pag-aaral na ito ay nagsisilbing gabay sa pagpili ng kanilang istratehiya, pamamaraan at mga karagdagang gawaing mag-aaral para sa dekalidad na serbisyo para sa kanilang mga mag-aaral.

Cultural Implications of Patterns, Designs, Symbols and Colors of Ethnic Woven Products in Mountain Province

Submitted by: Maria Paz Baldo Email: vicepresidentforrde@yahoo.com
University/Organization: Mountain Province State Polytechnic College Location: Mountain Province

Abstract

This study was conducted to document the designs, symbols, patterns as well as colors of ethnic hand woven products and the cultural implication of these. Findings indicated that the ethnic woven products were blankets, wearing apparels such as the G-string (wanes, ba-ag, wakesh etc.), headband (bedbed/pangyo), and upper garments ( salili, lus –odan and puton for the male) and tapis , belts (bakget/barikes/wakes/palasan) and blazer(lamma/barawasi) for the female. Today, the ethnic designs/patterns/color combinations were not limited only to ethnic blankets and clothing but also in bags, purse and other items. The common designs used were the eye, X shape, human figure, snake, flower, star, V- shape, zigzag, lattice diamonds, spear, shield and lizard. Patterns of weaving were striped with or without designs depending on the social status of the wearer. The most prominent color was bright red with specks of black, white, yellow or green. These designs, patterns, symbols and colors of the ethnic hand woven products generally stand for the social standing and economic status, gender and whether the wearer is dead or alive. Brightly colored garments (like red-indicating royal blood) were for the upper class and lightly colored garments like white were for the lower class (simplicity.
The presence of green and yellow were for the living and absence of these is for the dead. Further, more intricate design was for the richer and simpler ones meant lower class.

Keywords: Weaving, ethnic hand woven products, cultural implication

LEARNING ECOLOGY AT THE ECO-PARK

Submitted by: PROF. MARY JOSEPHINE C. BAUTISTA Email: joybauti@yahoo.com
University/Organization: West Visayas State University – Lambunao Campus Location: Lambunao, Iloilo

ABSTRACT

In the pursuit of new knowledge, scientists employ several techniques in their laboratories. However, when science students work in the classroom laboratory, they rarely appreciate the techniques and effort that teachers provide them. Laboratory classrooms are usually known to be as boring places and students consider their stay in those rooms as time – consuming. Lack of interests among students in this room arises because of the inadequacy of its facilities, (De la Cruz, 2006). Education can be achieved outside the classroom and applying these learnings to the real world, in real time, and in real education. Students will be delighted of their adventures in the field. (Lakbay Kalikasan, 2006).It attempted to document and ascertain that the students’ performance can be enhanced through a learning strategy, outdoor education, at Eco Park. The student – participants were the twenty- seven male and female members of BEED IV – B enrolled in BIO 217 (Ecology) at West Visayas State University – Lambunao Campus during the first semester of the school year 2009 – 2010. The study was conducted in the Eco Park at WVSU-LC, Lambunao, Iloilo. The Eco Park covers a hilly terrain, a stream , diverse species of flora and fauna, and tall trees.Students were graded based on their daily performance, self – rating and teacher’s rating. Descriptive statistics used were mean and standard deviation. t – test for dependent sample was used to determine the significant differences in their performances. The findings of the study support the fact that utilizing the natural setting (Eco park) in ecology instruction improves the learning process. Basic ecological concepts were duly identified and learned. Various attitudes, values and skills were developed. Problems were identified and mitigating measures were made.

FACTORS AND PATTERNS OF MUSLIMS MIGRATION IN THREE CITIES OF BATANGAS PROVINCE

Submitted by: Jeremias G. Tandug Email: jeretandug@yahoo.com
University/Organization: Lipa City Colleges Location: Lipa City

FACTORS AND PATTERNS OF MUSLIMS MIGRATION IN THREE CITIES OF BATANGAS PROVINCE

JEREMIAS GONZALES TANDUG
(Instructor, College of Education)

CHED-UPLB Zonal Research Center – LIPA CITY COLLEGES
Lipa City
October 2011

ABSTRACT
This study was conceptualized to analyze the profile, the migration patterns, and the factors-push and pull factors influencing the migration of Muslims from Mindanao to the cities of Batangas, namely Lipa, Batangas and Tanauan City.
The study used descriptive survey method with the three cities of Batangas Province research as sites. The sample size is 222 Muslim migrants from Batangas City, 338 from Lipa City, and 254 from Tanauan City. Furthermore, the respondents were identified using the purposive sampling.
The findings of the study revealed that majority of Muslim migrants in Batangas, Lipa, and Tanauan City were from Marawi, Maranaos, females, in their thirties, traders, had been in the city for four years or more, and were members of low income families. With regard to their educational attainment, majority of the Muslim Migrants in Batangas and Lipa City had attended or graduated from high school, while those from Tanauan City had reached college level.
The result of the study also revealed that the prominent migration pattern of Muslim migrants in Batangas, Lipa, and Tanauan cities is that from their point of origin, they migrated first to Mindanao cities, next to Visayas cities, then to Metro Manila and lastly settled in any of the cities of Batangas province.
Finally, the analysis of the factors of Muslim migration namely: economic, personal, political and psychosocial, revealed that political factors were relevant to Muslim migration in Batangas City, psychosocial factors in Lipa City and economic factors in Tanauan City.

Keywords: factors, patterns, Muslim migration

Introduction

People tend to move from one place to another for different reasons. They go from one country to another or from one place to another within a country because of poverty, violence, economic opportunity, better living conditions or for greater security. This phenomenon is called human migration. Some notable international issues regarding migration were the Mexico-US migration phenomenon and the trans-border migration from Bangladesh to India. On the other hand, in a specific country, migration may have the pattern of urban-to-rural or rural-to-urban. The latter is the most dominant pattern of migration in the Philippines which could be attributed largely to economic situation.
In the Philippines, it is a fact that there are lots of Bicolanos, Ilocanos, Ilonggos, Cebuanos, Muslims and the like who migrate to urban areas. However, the migration of Muslims always catches the attention of people in urban areas. What make them different from the rest are their religion, traditions, beliefs and most of all the issues concerning Muslim terrorism.
The League of Cities in the Philippines (Cities, 2008) noted in their conference, that several cities such as Baguio, Cagayan de Oro and Zamboanga experienced or registered an uptrend of rural-to-urban or urban-to-urban migration. According to reports, Baguio City registered an uptrend of rural-to-urban migration of Muslims in the last five decades. However, in Cagayan De Oro (CDO) City, displaced Muslim people moved closer to the city due to armed conflict from the neighboring provinces. While in Zamboanga, the city government received the “halaws” (forced repatriates from Sabah) at an alarming rate. Zamboangueños noticed that the halaws were draining the city’s resources since most of them still desire to go back to Sabah. On the contrary, the city recognized their potentials and hoped that they could become productive Zamboangueños.
According to the Office of Muslim Affairs (OMA) 2000, statistics showed that 69,561 or 59% of the Muslim migrants population are in Region 4 especially in Region IV A or CALABARZON area (Internal Displacement, 2008). This population ranked number 1 in Luzon area, which was more than the number of Muslim migrants in Metro Manila. This situation was considered a phenomenon especially in Batangas Province which is situated in CALABARZON area.
Economically, Batangas province is a first class province in the Philippines that is located at the southwestern part of Luzon in the CALABARZON region. Its capital is Batangas City and is bordered by the provinces of Cavite and Laguna to the north and Quezon to the east. Moreover, across the Verde Island Passages to the south is the island of Mindoro and to the west lies the South China Sea.
Batangas is also one of the most popular tourist destinations near Metro Manila. The province is a few hour-drive from Manila. It has many beaches and is famous for its excellent diving spots. Some of the more notable ones are Anilao, in the Municipality of Mabini, Matabungkay in the Municipality of Lian, Punta Fuego in the Municipality of Nasugbo and Laiya in the Municipality of San Juan.
In terms of economy, the CALABARZON (Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal and Quezon) project has been instrumental in bringing economic movement to Batangas through its activities on the agricultural, livestock, fishery, manufacturing, commerce, mining, tourism and other services like infrastructure sectors as water, transportation, telecommunications, energy and utilities and social sectors as education, health services and livelihood development and the like. Today, the Batangas Bay’s strategic location provides direct and easy way to inter-island and foreign trade via the operation of the Port of Batangas. Thus, the Batangas Port becomes the gateway to many islands specifically, Mindoro, Western Visayas and Romblon under the Philippine Nautical Highway Program or the “Roll On-Roll Off” program of the government. Moreover, in Batangas Province, Santo Tomas, Batangas whose proximity to the three cities of Batangas province is considered the cross road of “Roll On-Roll Off” program as it offers better access in going to Mindanao Island. These conditions make Batangas province accessible to any point of the Philippine Islands.
The economic progress in Batangas Province continues to accelerate due to the remarkable influx of industrialization brought about by positive economic climate and strategic location which are stimulating factors of development in the three cities of Batangas namely: Batangas City, Lipa City and Tanauan City. Thus, the province of Batangas is an attractive destination of migration.
In one of the issues of the Vision (October, 2009), a school paper of Lipa City Colleges, a journalistic investigation was conducted regarding Muslim migrants in Lipa City. According to the said investigation, some of the reasons why Muslims migrated in these cities were fear and chaos from their place of origin, Mindanao terrorism and bombing. In addition, the paper stated that according to the president of Muslim community, the number of Muslim settlers in Lipa City had reached two to three thousand in a span of five to six years. The same is true with Batangas City and Tanauan City. Most of the migrants were composed of merchandisers selling DVD’s and accessories at a very low price. Others were capitalists. The paper also noted that these Muslim migrants were already able to create a community of their own in each of the three cities of Batangas Province. They clustered in one place and in fact built a mosque where they can worship every day.
At present, a lot of positive and negative attitudes/feedbacks involving the presence of Muslim migrants are being discussed over the radios and in schools. These issues are heightened because of the current social upheavals and political constraints in Mindanao. News and accounts of massacre, terrorism, and kidnapping have been screaming on national newspapers and televisions. These created an image to some non-Muslims, that Muslims are dangerous people. Similarly, there have been reports of frictions between Muslim migrants and non-Muslims in the community where both live. However, whether these cities accept their presence or not, their number continue to increase and difficulties often occur in business, culture and in local politics.
With these scenarios, the researcher deeply recognized the necessity of conducting this study of profiling the Muslim migrants in the three cities of Batangas and determining the factors affecting their migration and their migration patterns. The researcher believed that the findings of this study would serve as a benchmark in integrating Muslims in the community and eventually become instrumental in making both the government and Muslim migrants fully utilize the latter’s presence, to be productive and to live harmoniously with other people.

Objectives of the Study
The study aimed to analyze the factors and migration patterns of Muslims in the three cities of Batangas Province. Specifically, the following were the specific objectives of the study: (a) To establish a profile of the Muslim migrants in the three cities of Batangas province; (b) To determine the migration pattern of the Muslim migrants in the three cities of Batangas province; and (c) To identify migration factors (push And pull factors) of Muslims from Mindanao to the cities of Batangas, Lipa and Tanauan.

Methodology
Research Design
The objective of this study was to assess the migration of Muslims in the three cities of Batangas Province, their profile, migration patterns, and the factors affecting the migration-the push and the pull factors. Thus, this study used the descriptive survey method, specifically as its research design. Generally, this study was a qualitative research.
According to James P. Key of Oklahoma State University (2006), descriptive survey research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe “what exists” with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. In this study the phenomenon that was referred to was the migration of the Muslims in the three cities of Batangas Province. The methods involved were the survey and interview which described the status of the phenomenon. Moreover, Krathwohl (2003) explained that descriptive survey research has three main purposes and these are to describe, explain, and validate findings. Besides, the discussion or description emerged from and followed creative exploration and served to organize the findings in order to fit them with explanations and then tested or validated those explanations. He added that many research studies call for the description of natural or man-made phenomena such as their form, structure, activity, over time change and their relation to other phenomena.
Hence, the researcher believed that the descriptive survey method was the most appropriate design for this study.

Subjects of the Study
The population of the study was the Muslim migrants of the three cities of Batangas Province namely: Tanauan City, Lipa City and Batangas City.
According to the record of estimates of the City Planning Office (CPO)/Statistics Office (SO)/City Social Welfare and Development (CSWD), the Muslim population in Batangas City is more or less 1000 while in Lipa City, it has already reached around 2,500 to 3,000, and in Tanauan City, it has an approximation of 600 to 700 people or Muslim migrants. Accordingly, using the estimates, the sample size was computed using the Slovene’s formula at 5% margin of error. The result of the computation revealed a sample size of 222 Muslim migrants for Batangas City, 338 in Lipa City, and 254 in Tanauan City. A total sample size of 814 was used in the study. Furthermore, the respondents were identified using the purposive sampling, that only those Muslim migrants aging 18 years old and above were included in the sample.
In the case of unstructured interviews, the respondents were persons or individuals who were knowledgeable regarding the deeper causes of the phenomenon. These persons were leaders of the Muslim migrants, the council of elders, the members of the Zakat organization, ordinary Muslims, and public officials who had enough knowledge regarding the reasons of their migration.

Data Gathering Instrument and Procedure
The research instruments used in gathering the data were the survey questionnaire and the unstructured interview.
The study made use of the survey questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument. The first part was for the profiling of the Muslim which included age, gender, tribe/clan, social classes, place of origin, occupation, educational attainment and number of years of stay in the city. The second part was for the migration pattern wherein the respondents indicated their major stops from their point of origin to their present residence. These major stops were their city stops where they stayed one month or longer before going to another place. The third part was for the factors influencing their migration, the push and pull factors. These push and pull factors were further categorized into economic, personal, political and psychosocial.
To analyze and interpret the push and pull factors that influence the Muslim migrants, the Likert scale below was used.
Scale Weight Verbal Interpretations
4.20 – 5.00 5 Very Relevant Factor
3.40 – 4.19 4 Relevant Factor
2.60 – 3.39 3 Moderately Relevant Factor
1.80 – 2.59 2 Fairly Relevant
1.00 – 1.79 1 Not relevant
In the case of determining the flow of migration pattern of Muslim migrants, each group of respondents from one point of origin were grouped according to their major stops, and the same system was done until they reached their final stop.
On the other hand, the survey questionnaire was first validated using the face validation. This validation required the researcher to have the questionnaire checked by at least three persons in authority. After all suggestions were considered, the questionnaire was subjected to a dry run and the result was statistically validated using the Cronbach Alpha test. The result showed that the alpha value was 0.895 which was greater than the Alpha value of 0.70. This implied that the reliability of the questionnaire was high.
Relatively, an unstructured interview was conducted in order for the researcher to have an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon, especially on some gray areas after doing the survey analysis.

Statistical Treatment
In the treatment of the different data gathered, the following tools were used.
For the survey analysis of the factors of Muslim migration to the community, the data were treated using the:
1. Frequency Count. This was used to present data clearly and accurately in group from each specified class or category;
2. Percentage. This was utilized to determine the relationship of the frequency over the total population;
3. Ranking. This was used to arrange data in a series according to importance either in ascending or descending order. In this study, the item with the highest frequency or weighted mean was ranked the highest; and
4. Weighted Mean. This tool was employed to present the gathered data into a single data which became the basis of interpretation of each variable involved in the study.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

1. Profile of the Muslim Migrants in the three cities of Batangas Province
Profile of Muslim Migrants in Batangas City. The profile of the respondents in Batangas City showed that majority of the Muslim migrants were Maranaos, on their thirties, female, lower income families, and had attended or graduated from high school. The data also revealed that majority settled in the said city for four years or more. Their point of origin was Marawi in Mindanao and they were mostly traders or merchandisers.
Profile of Muslim Migrants in Lipa City. The data indicated that majority of the Muslim migrants originated from Marawi, therefore they were Maranaos, traders or merchandisers, 21 years old and above, female, lower income families, had attended or graduated from high school, , and stayed in the city for 4 years or more.
Profile of Muslim Migrants in Tanauan City. The findings signified that majority of Muslim migrants in Tanauan City were from Marawi. They were Maranaos, traders, 31 years old and above, female, college level, lower income families, and stayed in Tanauan City for four or more years.

2. Migration Pattern of Muslim Migrants in the Three Cities of Batangas Province
Batangas City’s Muslim Migration Pattern. The migration pattern of Muslim migrants from their point of origin (Marawi, Iligan, Digos City, Zamboanga, and Lanao del Sur) to Batangas City showed that 39.4 percent of the Muslim migrants stayed first in Western Visayas Cities. However, of the 39.4 percent of the Muslim migrants, 28.4 percent had passed by Metro Manila before settling in Batangas City, while 11 percent settled right away in Batangas City. Further observation revealed that 25.2 percent went to Central Visayas Cities then settled in Batangas City. Also, from the same point of origin, another 25 percent of the Muslim migrants in Batangas City migrated first to Mindanao Cities. However, 23.8 percent went to Central Visayas Cities before residing in Batangas City, while 1.2 percent decided to go directly to Batangas City. Finally, from the point of origin, 10.4 percent of the Muslim migrants went directly to Batangas City.
The data signified that most of the Muslim migrants from Batangas City had a migration pattern of – from point of origin they migrated first to Western Visayas cities and majority had passed all the way through Metro Manila before settling in Batangas City.

Figure 1: Summary of Muslim Migration from their Point of Origin to
Batangas City

Lipa City’s Muslim Migration Pattern. Majority or 54.4 percent of the Muslim migrants from their point of origin (Marawi, Iligan, Digos City, Zamboanga, and Lanao del Sur) migrated first to Mindanao Cities. Of the 54.4 percent, 12.8 percent moved first to Metro Manila then to Lipa City, while the remaining 41.6 percent went directly to Lipa City. Whereas, the least number of Muslim migrants or 8.6 percent of them settled directly in Lipa City from their point of origin.

Figure 2: Summary of Muslim Migration Pattern from Point of Origin to
Lipa City

Tanauan City’s Muslim Migration Pattern. The migration patterns of Muslim migrants from the point of origin (Marawi, Iligan, Digos City, Zamboanga, and Lanao del Sur) to Tanauan City showed that majority or 90 percent had migrated first to Mindanao cities. Of the 90 percent, 2.0 percent had stayed for a while in Central Visayas cities, 2.8 percent went to Batangas City, 4.6 percent moved to Lipa City, 49.4 percent had travelled to Metro Manila and 31.2 percent had resided for a while in Western Visayas cities. After those places, they finally settled in Tanauan City.

Figure 3: Summary of Migration Pattern of Muslim Migrants from their
Point of Origin to Tanauan City

The summary of the migration of Muslim migrants from their point of origin ((Marawi, Iligan, Digos City, Zamboanga, and Lanao del Sur) to any cities of Batangas Province indicated a pattern that from their point of origin they stayed first in Mindanao cities, then to Visayas cities, next to Metro Manila, then end up in any three cities of Batangas Province.
This migration of Muslims was possible because of the accessibility of transportation such as shipping lines servicing Mindanao-Visayas- Metro Manila or the Nautical Highway, the “Roll on-Roll off” system from Mindanao to Metro Manila or Visayas region.

Figure 4: Summary of Migration Pattern of Muslim Migrants from their
Point of Origin to Cities of Batangas Province

3. Factors Influencing the Muslim Migration in the Cities of Batangas, Lipa and Tanauan City
Muslim Migrants in Batangas City. Economic factors were considered relevant causes of Muslim migration in Batangas City. The push factors considered relevant were insufficient employment opportunities way back home, their belief that migration to other places exceeded the costs, and scarcity or inadequate access to land and resources in their hometown. On the other hand, Batangas City provided these opportunities plus the proximity of the place to Metro Manila and from the place where they came from.
Muslim migrants believed that personal factors were moderately relevant to their migration. One of the reasons why they left their hometown was the unemployment or underemployment in their place of origin which is contrary to what Batangas could provide. Besides, their friends or relatives have already migrated or moved to Batangas. They assumed that it is a good place for retirement, that it had generous people and better access to education because of the safety and security in this place. These pull-factors of Batangas City were considered relevant in their decision to migrate.
Political factors that have pushed Muslims to migrate were considered moderately relevant. What made them migrate to Batangas City were the promise of extended liberties, better peace and order situation and freedom to organize/move against oppressive forces of the place. In conclusion, political factors were relevant to their decision to transfer to Batangas City.
With regard to the psychosocial factors, they considered exposure to violence or anti-social behavior such as very limited government services as relevant factor why they chose to leave their hometown. However, the push factors they experienced in their point of origin were in contrast to what Batangas City has in the forms of social support and networks. The data pointed out that psychosocial factor was moderately relevant in their decision to stay in Batangas City.
In summary, Muslim migrants regarded political and economic factors relevant in their migration while they considered personal and psychosocial factors moderately relevant in their decision to settle in Batangas City. Conclusively, the four factors: political, economic, personal, and psychosocial were moderately relevant in the decision of the Muslim migrants to reside in Batangas City.
Muslim Migrants in Lipa City. Statistically and economically speaking, the Muslim migrants in Lipa City considered scarcity or inadequate access to land and resources at home, investment decision and the information they gathered which they believed they will be better off when they migrate, as the push factors. In contrast, the pull factors that made them decide to stay in Lipa City were the accessibility of markets, job opportunities, proximity of the place from where they came from, access to land and natural resources and the accessibility of the place especially on the source of their merchandise.
In addition, Muslim migrants in Lipa City decided to leave their place of origin because of poverty, political motives (such as to escape dictatorship), unemployment and underemployment. These factors were considered relevant personal factors in their decision to migrate. Concomitantly, they believed that the generosity of the people in Lipa City, access to facilities and amenities (such as social services and transport) and safety and security of the place were considered relevant factors in pulling them to migrate to this place.
Moreover, political conflict and political persecution were relevant factors why Muslim migrants left their place. Likewise, they considered Lipa City’s political stability, good political climate and freedom to organize/move against oppressive forces as relevant pull factors in their migration. These political factors were considered relevant in the migration of Muslims to Lipa City.
Furthermore, the Muslim migrants decided to leave their hometown because of their experience on community violence or anti-social behavior such as aggression and isolation from friends, family and relatives. They were also exposed to discrimination in terms of salary (lower salaries compared to non-Muslims), government services (service received was very limited) and jobs (opportunities were less compared to non-Muslims) and inequalities in the distribution of wealth and benefits. These push factors were relevant in their decision to migrate. On the contrary, the atmosphere with less exposure to discrimination and less contact to anti-social behavior pulled them to Lipa City. In general, the psychosocial factors were relevant to Muslim migrants’ decision to reside in Lipa City.
In summary, the psychosocial, economic and political factors were relevant to the decision of Muslim migrants to settle in Lipa City despite the fact that personal factors were considered moderately relevant. Whereas, the four factors in general were moderately relevant in the choice of the migrant Muslims to reside in Lipa City.
Muslim Migrants in Tanauan City. The following economic factors were considered by the Muslim migrants very relevant when they left their place in exchange of Tanauan City: insufficient employment opportunities, scarcity or inadequate access to land and resources, improvement in financial situation by seeking employment in other places and their belief that migrating to other places exceeded the costs. The only relevant factor why they left their place was their belief through the information gathered that they will be better off by doing so. In contrast, the economic conditions of Tanauan City such as access to facilities and amenities (social services and transport), the generosity of the people in the community, access to education and safety and security, heightened their desire to settle in Tanauan City. Besides, their friends or relatives were living in the said community. To encapsulate, the economic factors were considered very relevant to Muslim migration in Tanauan City.
Furthermore, the relevant personal factors that have pushed the Muslim migrants to leave their place of residence were poverty, unemployment and underemployment. On the other hand, the pull factors such as opportunities as resident, opportunities for better job and business and access to markets have attracted Muslims to Tanauan City and were considered very relevant. Although the strength of local labor market and access to land and natural resources were considered as relevant only, these are also factors why they stayed in Tanauan City. In general, personal factors were moderately relevant to Muslim migration in Tanauan City.
Additionally, political instability or civil unrest, persecution, terrorism, suppression of individual rights and freedom and political conflict were moderately relevant in pushing Muslims to migrate. What attracted them most to Tanauan City were the good political climate and stability, extended liberties, good peace and order situation, freedom to discuss politics and the organization/movement against oppressive forces. Generally, the Muslim migrants regarded political factors relevant in migrating to Tanauan City.
Moreover, the Muslim migrants considered the presence of family members who were supportive of their decision to migrate a relevant psychosocial push factor. Whereas, the absence or less exposure to discrimination and anti-social behavior and the presence of social support and networks of the city were considered relevant pull factors of Tanauan City. However, in most cases, psychosocial factors were moderately relevant to Muslim migrants to come to a decision of settling in Tanauan City.
Of the four factors, Muslim migrants considered economic and political factors relevant in their migration, whereas, personal and psychosocial factors were moderately relevant. Generally, the aforementioned four factors were moderately relevant in the decision of Muslims to migrate in the cities of Batangas, Lipa and Tanauan.

Conclusions

From the different findings and interpretations of the gathered data, the following conclusions were drawn.
1. The greater part of Muslim migrants in Batangas, Lipa, and Tanauan cities are from Marawi, Maranaos, females, in their thirties, traders, had been in the city for four years or more, and are members of low income families. With regard to their educational attainment, majority of the Muslim Migrants in Batangas and Lipa cities had attended or graduated from high school, while those from Tanauan City had reached college level.
2. Majority of the Muslim migrants in Batangas, Lipa, and Tanauan cities had this migration pattern: From their point of origin (Marawi, Iligan, Digos City, Zambaonga, and Lanao del Sur), they migrated first to Mindanao cities, then to Visayas cities, next to Metro Manila and finally settled in any of the cities of Batangas province.
3. The push factors of Muslim migration in Batangas City were the insufficient employment opportunities, unemployment or underemployment, the belief that migration exceeded the cost, the scarcity or inadequate access to land and resources and exposure to community violence or anti-social behavior such as limited government services. On the contrary, the pull factors such as equal opportunities as resident and for better business, strong local labor market, better job opportunities, access to markets, proximity of the place from where they came from, access to land and natural resources, information that their friends or relatives were residents of the community, a good place for retirement, generosity of the people, access to education, safety and security, good political climate, promise of extended liberties, better peace and order situation, freedom to organize/move against oppressive forces and social support and networks of the city attracted Muslim migrants to settle in Batangas City. These factors were considered relevant to Muslim migration in Batangas City.
With regard to Muslim migrants in Lipa City, the relevant push factors that compelled them to leave their place of origin were as follows: scarcity or inadequate access to land and resources; investment decision; their belief, through the information gathered, that they would be better off by doing so; unemployment or underemployment; political motives ( to escape dictatorship); poverty; political conflict and persecution; exposure to community violence or anti-social behavior such as isolation from friends, family and relatives; aggression; exposure to discrimination in terms of lower salaries compared to non-Muslims; very limited government services; insufficient jobs; and inequalities in the distribution of wealth and benefits. In contrast, the pull factors of Lipa City which were relevant to Muslim migrant’s decision to migrate were the opportunities given to its residents in terms of services, the proximity of the place from where they came from, better job opportunities, access to markets, land and natural resources of the place, access to facilities and amenities such as social services and transport, generosity of the people in the community, safety and security, good political climate and political stability, freedom to organize/move against oppressive forces, social support and networks of the city, and the absence or less contact to anti-social behavior and exposure to discrimination.
Finally, in Tanauan City, the push factors which were considered to be very relevant in pushing Muslim migrants to depart from their place of origin were: scarcity or inadequate access to land and resources; the belief that migration to other places exceeded the cost; investment decision; insufficient employment opportunities; and their belief that seeking employment improves one’s financial situation. In addition, the push factors like, the belief through the information gathered that they will be better off in doing so, poverty, unemployment or underemployment and the supportive family in their decision to migrate, were also relevant in the decision of Muslim migrants in leaving their hometown. Conversely, the pull factors of Tanauan City which were considered by the Muslim migrants to be very relevant were: opportunities as resident and for better business, access to markets, better facilities and amenities (such as social services and transport), opportunities to education, generosity of the people, safety and security, good political climate and political stability, promise of extended liberties, better peace and order situation, freedom to discuss politics, freedom to organize/move against oppressive forces, and the absence or less exposure to violence. These factors highly augmented their decision to migrate to Tanauan City. However, the strength of local labor market, access to land and natural resources, information about their friends or relatives who were residents of the community, social support and networks of the city, and absence or less contact or exposure to anti-social behavior and to discrimination were also considered to be relevant pull factors why Muslim migrants stayed in Tanauan City.

Recommendations
1. The CSWD, treasurer’s office, city planning office, and barangay records section where Muslim migrants reside should create a separate record on taxes, population, business licenses, to name a few, involving Muslims and other migrants, to facilitate data collection as regards the impact of their migration especially in the area of economy and revenues of the barangay and of the city.
2. The city government should create a policy or law to address the needs of the Muslim and other migrants in the city to make them productive and become one of the key factors in the economic development of the city.
3. That the city government will create a task force committee for Muslim migrants that will serve as bridge between the former and the latter, whose main functions are:
a. to disseminate different programs of the national and city government especially in the areas of education and health sanitation to benefit in and take pleasure from.
b. to strengthen the collaboration between the Muslim migrants and the city government concerning problems involving peace and order situation and interpersonal relationship between Muslim migrants and city residents.
c. to formulate short and long term plans for Muslim migrants such as to integrate them to the community, to make them productive and to have harmonious relationship among themselves and the community residents.
4. To the future researchers, that the data in this study will serve as benchmark to conduct another research focusing on formulation of long and short term plans to fully integrate these Muslim migrants to the community.

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Short Biography of the Authors (not to exceed five lines for each.)
The author is a graduate of Bachelor of Secondary Education with specialization in Mathematics at the West Visayas State University in Iloilo City, graduated his MA in Educational Management at Xavier University-Ateneo de Cagayan, and currently pursuing his doctoral degree at the University of Batangas, Batangas City. At present, he is a Mathematics instructor in Lipa City Colleges, lipa City.
Contact Information: 09263382800
E-mail address: jeretandug@yahoo.com

LEVELS OF HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION OF VARIOUS WATER SAMPLES FROM LAGUNA DE BAY – PILILLA COASTLINE AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS

Submitted by: Reneecilia B. Paz de Leon Email: reneecilia@yahoo.com
University/Organization: University of Rizal System Location: Morong, Rizal

The increasing biological oxygen demand (BOD) and decreasing dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in various water systems in Metro Manila including CALABARZON area is one of major problems the country is facing today. Water pollution in Metro Manila according to World Bank (WB) report is most severe where all surface waters, except for upper portions of the Marikina River, can be considered biologically dead during dry months. The coastal areas in the country are deteriorating due to heavy siltation, pollution, overfishing, and destructive fishing techniques. One of the most affected water resource is the famous Laguna de Bay, the world’s biggest lake. Ninety eight percent of aquatic products along the shorelines of Pasig, Marikina, Rizal, Cavite, and Laguna emanates from this lake. Big head carp, Milkfish, Catfish, Tilapia, Ayungin and other fresh water products are among the popular inhabitants of the lake. However, because of the tremendous rise in the number of factories and residents along the Laguna de Bay coasts, the problem on pollution cannot be avoided. One of the predominating problems of the lake is the rise in its pH content. Since pH is a unit of measure which describes the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution, the drastic change in Hydrogen ion concentration will definitely cause the death of treasured species in any water environment. Hence Laguna Lake, being subjected into different forms of environmental harassment will definitely lose its threshold as the future potable water source of Metro Manila if not taken cared of. The study dealt with the assessment of water quality along Pililla coastline. The study discovered significant findings in terms of water quality as revealed by the pH readings, hence various environmental sustainability measures are recommended to avoid further deterioration of water quality of the place.

KABIR RAISING : A WORTHWHILE EXPERIENCE

Submitted by: Reneecilia B Paz de Leon Email: reneecilia@yahoo.com
University/Organization: University of Rizal System Location: Morong, Rizal

Chicken meat is a rich source of protein and is considered an important part of the daily diet of Filipinos. Ideally, chicken meat should be served out of a production batch which is free of harmful artificial chemical which are often present in many commercially available brands. Thus on this score, native chicken is more preferred than commercially –brand one because of their chemical free meat attributes. Alternatives to native chicken with similar freedom from artificial chemicals in their meats do exist. The Kabir variety, for instance, has this specific characteristic and significantly outweighs Philippine native chicken because of their bulk. Kabir chicken bear ancestral basis wherein strains were carefully selected from good old flocks fifty years ago in Israel. According to Permites of Royal Chick Farms from the middle east, Kabir has been bred, concentrated and expanded its unique gene pool, eliminating undesirable genes and traits in accordance with the needs of different markets. Over the years Kabir has developed its exclusive Plymouth recessive White Rock. Today, Kabir’s female recessive White Rock with a correct blend of sex chromosomes with sex linking genes can offer the answer to virtually every type of market requirement. The researcher conducted experiments to find out optimum responses of Kabir chickens considering the temperature and space requirements as selected parameters while recording significant observations of Kabir’s behavior in terms of feeding, water requirements, and sanitation as well as reproduction manners under prevailing environmental conditions. Reconciling the outputs of the study, the researcher assessed the economic implications of Kabir raising in the province using the economic status of the province as the base line data. Relative thereto, considering the supply and price of Kabir, experimentations were limited to space and temperature requirements.

The Effectiveness and Acceptability of the HERO Instructional Flipchart with Teacher’s Handbook in Science and Health Education for Elementary and High School

Submitted by: Reneecilia B Paz de Leon/Mariam M Estrabo Email: reneecilia@yahoo.com
University/Organization: University of Rizal System Location: Morong, Rizal

The progress of every nation largely depends on the quality of its human capital that is not only concerned with knowledge, skills and competencies but more so with their physical health. The health of the people in a country can be a good predictor of its national development. Hence, Executive Order 595 or the Health Education Reform Order of 2006 (H.E.R.O. of 2006) through the Philippine College of Physicians became the largest doctor-initiated advocacy in the country supporting universal and preventive health care which has the prime goal to reduce the burden of illnesses in the Philippines through comprehensive health education and disease prevention.
It is well known among educators that, the educational experiences involving the learner actively participating in concrete examples are retained longer than abstract experiences. Instructional materials add elements of reality by providing concrete examples to learning. It is for this reason that the Philippine College of Physicians (PCP) in partnership with the Meralco Management and Leadership Development Center(MMLDC) with the able assistance of University of Rizal System(URS) and DepEd Teachers from Region IV-A and NCR developed an instructional flipchart with teachers’ manual to be used in teaching concepts of the 10 leading diseases in the Philippines. The research was undertaken to prove the effectiveness of the said materials in educating the clienteles regarding these illnesses. The study was anchored on the Sensory Stimulation Theory, which states that effective learning occurs when the senses are stimulated.
The research was focused on the determination of the effectiveness and acceptability of the developed Instructional Flipchart with Teacher’s Handbook. It also described how the topics and materials were used in the classroom and the behavioral changes in the health practices of the respondents which can be attributed to their exposure to the HERO lessons. The promising integration of the HERO topics in the basic education curricula was analyzed. The effectiveness of the developed IMs was tested through experimental method. Administrators, faculty, students and parents from selected schools in the provinces of Batangas and Cavite and cities of Manila, Antipolo and Caloocan were the respondents of the study. The difference in the students’ pretest and posttest scores was analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the IMs. Descriptive Method was applied to evaluate the IM’s acceptability in terms of Objectives, Content, Functionality and Presentation. Qualitative technique through interviews and focus group discussion was used to describe changes in the health-related practices and behaviors of the respondents that can be attributed with the knowledge gained from the use of IMs. Faculty and administrator respondents were interviewed to describe how the HERO topics and flipchart were used in the classroom while document analysis was used to analyze how the HERO topics can be contextualized and integrated in the basic education curriculum. Respondents including parents were involved in FGD sessions to validate behavioral changes among their children as a result to the IMs’ exposure. The study was conducted from June 2010 to May of 2011.
The study provided evidence that the use of developed instructional materials is a sine qua non in affecting behavior of learners. Evaluated IMs provided the teachers with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since IMs motivated learners to want to learn more. Further, HERO IMs provided opportunities for private study and reference. HERO IMs generally made teaching learning easier and less stressful. Developed HERO IMs were recommended for reproduction and adoption since they are equally indispensable catalysts of personal, social and intellectual development of the learners. However, the knowledge of the teacher cannot be overemphasized in the use and handling on any instructional gadgets for effective learning.

ALTERNATIVE TASKS AND ASSESSMENT MATERIAL IN ENGLISH 1

Submitted by: Julieta St Fulgado Email: urspublication@yahoo.com
University/Organization: University of Rizal System Location: Pililla, Rizal

This study aimed to develop and validate an alternative tasks and assessment material in Study and Thinking Skills in the University of Rizal System during the second semester school year 2010-2011.
The study made use of the descriptive research method and the experimental method. The respondents of the study were the 141 first year students in English 1 and 38 faculty members handling English 1 in University of Rizal System.
The instruments used in the study were the 60-item instructor-made test which is focused on organizing skills, generating skills and recognizing skills, and a questionnaire for the analysis of the material with respect to clarity of explanations, design characteristics, aids to instruction and learning activities.
The findings of the study revealed that the 60- item instructor-made test used in determining the validity of the developed alternative tasks and assessments materials was composed of 24 or 28.89 percent “easy “ items, 41 or 45.56 percent “moderate items” and 23 or 25.55 percent difficult items. On the other hand, there is a total of 45 items that were retained with 15 for Organizing skills, 13 for Generating Skills and 14 for Recognizing Skills. For the Organizing skills, there were 5 items that were revised and 10 items that were rejected. For the Generating Skills, 6 items were revised while 10 items were rejected while for Recognizing Skills, there were 5 and 9 items which were revised and rejected respectively. This resulted to the revision and construction of the new items for the items that needed revision and items that were rejected.
The instructor made test possessed “very reliable” verbal interpretation which implies that consistency of result was expected as it was used in the pre-test.
The over-all mean performance of the experimental group in post-test of the three thinking skills is 14.89 with a standard deviation of 2.48.
The computed t-value on the difference of the experimental group as revealed by pre-test and post-test is .000 which is less than the alpha level of significance of .05 and resulted to the rejection of the null hypothesis.
The analysis of the developed alternative tasks and assessments material with respect to clarity of explanation was clear; for the design characteristics, the result was relevant. The material is acceptable with respect to aids to instructions and the learning activities are sufficient.
There is significant difference on the level of analysis of the developed
material as evaluated by both Instructor and Student-respondents with respect to clarity of explanation, design characteristics, aids to instructions and learning activities of the material since the p values of .000 and .001 are less than .05 alpha level of significance.
On the basis of the summary of findings it was concluded that the Developed Alternative Tasks and Assessments Material can therefore be utilized by the Instructors of English, not only as supplement but as a main guide in developing alternative tasks and assessments in other subjects other than English 1. From the result, the students’ thinking skills improved after they were exposed to the materials. These skills are necessary in surviving the college years, since the courses require intensive and extensive readings of texts as well as organizing the items for their researches as part of the curriculum. The developed alternative tasks and assessments material is a valid and reliable instructional material in promoting the development of thinking skills of freshman students.
Based on the findings and conclusions drawn, the researcher recommended that Alternative Tasks and Materials should be used to supplement the traditional lecture-discussion method of teaching English 1. The Alternative Tasks and Assessment Materials for other subjects in English should also be prepared, evaluated and utilized by instructors as supplementary materials. An in-service education program should be conducted to update teachers on the preparation of instructional materials. Authentic materials should be used as aids to supplement the traditional materials from books and a similar study should be conducted so as to generate and validate the findings and result of the study.

PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF NANNIES AS PERCEIVED BY WORKING PARENTS: AN INPUT TO NANNY TRAINING PROGRAM

Submitted by: Julieta ST Fulgado Email: urspublication@yahoo.com
University/Organization: University of Rizal System Location: Pililla, Rizal

This study aimed to assess the personality characteristics of nannies as perceived by working parents as the basis for child rearing enhancement skills seminar
The study made used of the descriptive method of research for it is the appropriate

method in assessing the personality characteristics of nannies as experienced by working parents with employed nannies. To get the profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, civil status, and highest educational attainment, number of employed nannies, percentage and rank was used.
To determine the assessment of the respondents on the assess the experiences and adjustment of working parents with employed nannies with respect to personal, emotional, cultural and social aspect mean was used. For the significant difference on the assessment of the respondents, t-test was used.

The findings state that most of the parents with employed nannies belong to the age bracket of 30 to 39 years old or in the prime of their lives and the nannies are 16 to 30 years old. In terms of sex, majority of the respondents are female since employing nannies in the family is their concern; in terms of employment, majority of the respondents are employed and married. Majority finished the secondary level and had already employed 1-4 all around maids.
With respect to personal, emotional, cultural and social aspect, the working parents with employed nannies always experience problems in dealing with their nannies based on the overall mean of 4.33. and 3.80 on the part of the nannies themselves. More specifically, the social aspect evidently appears to be the problem that both the parents and nannies always encounter. It was found out that there is a significant difference in the experiences as evaluated by the parents and nannies with respect to personal, emotional, cultural and social aspect since the p values of .000 and .001 are less than .05 alpha level of significance.

It is therefore concluded that the social and personal are the aspects that appear to be the root of adjustments specifically when the nannies need to be reminded on the duties from time to time and they always go to the neighbors house just to chat even during the official hours.
It is recommended that these aspects be part of the seminar-workshop for nannies so as to help them function in their jobs with the full acceptance of the employers. These will also help the nannies that adjustments on the different aspects apart from what they used to do shall help them to stay in their jobs for a longer time. This is apart from the child rearing practices that nannies should know so as to make them fully aware that their jobs count a lot to the families they serve.

Perceived Level of Peer Influence among Maritime Students

Submitted by: Mylene S. Jainga Email: rdo_stmtccmag@yahoo.com
University/Organization: St. Therese-MTC Colleges Location: Magdalo St., La Paz Iloilo City

This study was conducted in order to determine the Perceived Level of Influence Among Freshmen Maritime Students of St.Therese MTC Colleges-Magdalo. It specifically tried to identify the perceived level of influence among freshmen maritime students of St.Therese MTC Colleges- Magdalo when taken as a whole group and when grouped according to parent’s monthly income. This descriptive study only included 194 randomly selected Freshmen Students of Marine Engineering at St.Therese MTC Colleges- Magdalo enrolled during the second semester of school year 2011-2012. Data on the dependent variable were gathered through a researcher-made questionnaire. Analysis of data employed the use of both descriptive and inferential statistical tools as frequency, percentage, mean, and ANOVA. Findings revealed that as a whole group, the respondents had favorable peer influence and when tested for significance, no differences exists when classified according to family monthly income.

In-Service Training Programs, Teacher Factors, and Student Performance: Bases for Enhanced Professional Development Model for Teachers

Submitted by: MARY G. ALVIOR Email: mgalvior@yahoo.com
University/Organization: PALAWAN STATE UNIVERSITY Location: PUERTO PRINCESA CITY

(Revised)
This study aimed at providing baseline information on in-service trainings, teacher factors, and student performance; and to develop a professional development model for teachers. A total of 53 Fourth Year High School teachers and 2,084 students were randomly taken as participants across the Division of Puerto Princesa City, Palawan. The Research and Development (R&D) method, which has two modes of research and design, was utilized in this study. For the research mode, three sets of achievement tests were administered to the students while a survey and a focus group interview were employed to gather data from the teachers. As regards results of the English, Mathematics, and Science achievement tests, students had low performance in three subject areas in which Science was the lowest. Nevertheless, teachers had high perception and satisfaction regarding the in-service training programs. They also had high levels of teaching efficacy, average level of job satisfaction, and positive attitude towards the teaching profession. Furthermore, results of the Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression showed that teachers’ level of satisfaction with the in-service training programs was a significant predictor of their teaching efficacy. It was also found that teaching efficacy, job satisfaction, and attitude were not significant predictors of student performance. All the results found in the research mode were taken as bases for the design and development of the professional development model for teachers. This model aimed at empowering teachers particularly in English, Mathematics and Science by giving them an opportunity to choose their own activities from an array of professional development activities through a contract or a written agreement with their school heads.

The Effects of Climate Change in the Agricultural Crops Minicipality of Calinog

Submitted by: Rome B. Moralista, M.A.Ed. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras, Ph.D. Gabrel C. Delariarte, Ed.D. Email: jerlynagustar@yahoo.com
University/Organization: wvsu-calinog campus Location: calinog, iloilo philippines

The main aim of this research study is to better understand the effects of climate change in the agricultural crops. This paper reports on the results of a survey of thirty (30) farmers at Brgy Gama ;Carvasana; and Tabucan in the Minicipality of Calinog about effects of climate change in their agricultural crops. An analysis of the quantitative survey findings is presented focusing on the Effects of Climate Change. The findings revealed that agriculture is extremely vulnerable to climate change; Higher temperatures eventually reduce yields of desirable crops while encouraging weed and pest proliferation; Changes in precipitation patterns increase the likelihood of short-run crop failures and long-run production declines; Agriculture is highly sensitive to climate variability and weather extremes, such as droughts, floods and severe storms; The enduring changes in climate, water supply and soil moisture could make it less feasible to continue crop production in certain places; Higher temperatures in general will hasten plant maturity in annual species; thus, shortening the growth stages during which pods, seeds, grains or bolls can absorb photosynthetic products; The yield are lower in the tropics where increased temperatures may move beyond optima, negative consequences may dominate; In general, higher temperatures should decrease cold damage and increase heat damage; Too much precipitation can cause disease infestation in crops, while too little can be detrimental to crop yields, especially if dry periods occur during critical development stages; Higher temperatures, increased evaporation, and yield decreases contribute to this projection; Climate change in the community triggered the rise in temperature and the increases in uncertainty, variability, and patterns of rainfall and super typhoon events, as well; The climate change and variability combined their weather modifying and alternating impacts with El Niño and La Niña which occurs in almost every two years and resulted into more complex and unpredictable changes in weather patterns and intensity of temperatures and extreme rainfall events; Calinognons’ agriculture has been traditionally exposed to the many hazards and risks from typhoons and droughts even before the on-set of climate change. The outstanding threat of climate change is climatic events such are rainfall, humidity, and rising temperatures; thus, weakening the overall resiliency of the community’s food security and self- sufficiency to climate change, including the increasing problems on water allocation and prioritization for water supply for irrigation, domestic water supply, and energy requirements; Climate change will result in additional price increases for the most important agricultural crops–rice, wheat, maize, and soybeans; Higher feed prices will result in higher meat prices. As a result, climate change will reduce the growth in meat consumption slightly and cause a more substantial fall in cereals consumption; In general, climate change places new and more challenging demands on agricultural productivity. It is urgent to pursue crop, livestock to help overcome stresses related to climate change such as heat, drought, and novel pathogens. Specifically, crops and livestock that respond reasonably well in a range of production environments.
Keywords: climate change; agricultural crops; and municipality of calinog

Learning Ecology at Eco Park

Submitted by: Mary Josephine C. Bautista Email: joybauti@yahoo.com
University/Organization: West Visayas State University - Lambunao Campus Location: Lambunao, Iloilo

ABSTRACT

In the pursuit of new knowledge, scientists employ several techniques in their laboratories. However, when science students work in the classroom laboratory, they rarely appreciate the techniques and effort that teachers provide them. Laboratory classrooms are usually known to be as boring places and students consider their stay in those rooms as time – consuming. Lack of interests among students in this room arises because of the inadequacy of its facilities, (De la Cruz, 2006). Education can be achieved outside the classroom and applying these learnings to the real world, in real time, and in real education. Social and natural environment are sources of learning. Students will be exposed in various conditions that best fit their learning capabilities. Students will be delighted of their adventures in the field. (Lakbay Kalikasan, 2006). This is an action research wherein the outcome of this study will be useful and will improve the lives of the participants of the study. Its specific aim is to create a change. It attempted to document and ascertain that the students’ performance can be enhanced through a learning strategy, outdoor education, at Eco Park. It brings together people from diverse skills and abilities. The student – participants were the twenty- seven male and female members of BEED IV – B enrolled in BIO 217 (Ecology) at West Visayas State University – Lambunao Campus during the first semester of the school year 2009 – 2010. The study was conducted in the Eco Park at West Visayas State University – Lambunao Campus, Lambunao, Iloilo. The Eco Park was located on the northeast portion of the nine hectare school site, covering about a hectare of land, with hilly terrain, with a stream crossing it and with diverse species of flora and fauna. Tall trees are also abundant in the park. West Visayas State University – Lambunao Campus is located in Poblacion Ilawod, Lambunao, Iloilo. Students were graded based on their daily performance, self – rating and teacher’s rating. The overall grade of student comprises post test (25%), interviews and teachers rating (15%), Transcripts of focus group discussion, field notes of students, journals of reflections (30%), photo elicitations (10%) and shadowing visits (20%). In order to determine the learning performance of BEED IV – B students enrolled in BIO 217 at Eco Park, the following were used: 1) a fifteen- item multiple choice pretest and posttest which underwent content and face validation. It was also subjected to critiquing by group of experts; 2) a researcher- made checklist duly validated by experts in the field of biology. The first month of the classes were held in the science lecture room wherein the contents of the syllabus, requirements of the course, grading system and my research were discussed. The rest of the semester will be utilized in their activities to be conducted at the Eco Park. There were four projects in ecology that were conducted in the Eco Park. They were the construction of herbal garden, construction of nursery of fruit bearing trees, waste management system, and assessment of biodiversity. Sources of data include: 1) pretest and posttest test, 2) transcripts of interviews, 3) transcript of focus – group discussion, 4) Field notes, 5) journal of reflections, 6) photo elicitations and 7) observation on how much the participants’ activities are related to issues and 8) checklist. Transcript of focus – group discussions, journals of reflections, photo elicitations, minutes of meeting, and field notes were all placed in the portfolio. Before students reported to the eco park, the researcher informed them that while doing the activities, they will become participants in the research which is a requirement for her doctoral degree. Descriptive statistics used were mean and standard deviation. To test the significance of the differences between the pretest and posttest performance of BEED IV- B students, the researcher employed t – test for dependent sample. All statistical computations were processed through the Statistical Package for the Social Science Software (SPSS). The pretest performance of BEED IV – B students studying ecology in the classroom was low (mean = 2.1111, SD = 1.7394). Low performance of students may be due to their unfamiliarity of ecological concepts. The posttest performance of BEED IV – B students after studying ecology at Eco Park was high (mean = 10.8140, SD = 2.05358). The high performance of students was due to the fact that they were now able to relate with ecological concepts. There was a significant difference in their pretest and posttest performances. The findings of the study are supporting the fact that utilizing the natural setting (Eco park) in ecology instruction improves the learning process. Basic ecological concepts were duly identified and learned. Various attitudes, values and skills were developed. Problems were identified and mitigating measures were made.

Impediments of Effective Biology Teaching: A Challenge to the K-12 Program Implementation of the Philippine Government By : Peter Ernie D. Paris

Submitted by: PETER ERNIE D. PARIS Email: pedparis@yahoo.com
University/Organization: West Visayas State Univesity Location: Iloilo City

ABSTRACT (Revised)

The study is an investigation of the state of biology education in Region VI. Specifically, a straightforward identification of the impediments of effective Biology teaching as identified by selected teachers subjected to case studies.
From randomly selected schools, teachers were assessed by their students and those who fell short from the standard profile of an effective biology teacher and with lowest mean scores were purposely selected as subjects for case studies. A probing questionnaire was given and was retrieved prior to the date of interview. An interview guide was prepared and sessions with the subjects were arranged according to their convenience and availability. A tape recorder was used to record the interviews and was later on transcribed. Other important information were written and highlighted on field notes. Still pictures were taken on the facilities, surroundings and other school areas. Their immediate heads were likewise interviewed and small group discussions with their students as well were conducted to supplement the information provided by teachers.

The reported impediments of biology education are actually perennial and not that new, they keep on recurring. Science facilities such as laboratories were not built and teaching materials were not purchased to supposedly support science inquiry-based instruction like experimentations; there is insufficient in-service training that made teachers not aware of the current trends of effective biology teaching; there were heavy teaching and nonteaching assignments; there was excessive number of students per class causing teacher to limit instruction to “chalk and talk” method. Furthermore, the presence of nonreaders and students with low comprehension skill were also impediments to biology teaching. The primary limiting factor among others therefore is fiscal or budgetary constraint, a factor that causes these numerous difficulties.

The study provided an insight on the state of biology education in Region VI and reflects the current state nationwide. The result confirms the claims and findings regarding impediments to quality education. This is a challenge to the K-12 program implementation of the government.

ADMINISTRATORS’ COMMITMENT AND MANAGERIAL PRACTICES AND TEACHERS’ JOB SATISFACTION

Submitted by: Emmanuel Salamanca Email: salamanca_emmanuel@rocketmail.com
University/Organization: WVSU - JC Location: Janiuay Iloilo

Dr. Emmanuel M. Salamanca
(Presenter)
& Dr. Natalia F. Lizada
West Visayas State University- Lambunao Campus
Lambunao , Iloilo, Philippines

Abstract
This descriptive study determined the level of the administrators’ commitment and managerial practices. Their teachers’ job satisfaction was as well determined. This was conducted in the Division of Iloilo during the school year 2011-2012. The subjects of the study were the teachers of thirty-four (34) elementary school administrators in the Division of Iloilo. The administrators’ commitment and managerial practices were determined by their teachers. The teachers’ job satisfaction was determined by themselves. The data on administrators’ commitment was gathered through a duly validated and pre-tested researcher-made checklist questionnaire. The instrument for managerial practices was adopted from Convocar (2005). The teachers’ job satisfaction used a checklist questionnaire adopted from (Sabino, 1989). The study used the means and standard deviation as descriptive statistics, and Pearson’s r as inferential statistics set at 0.05 alpha. The findings revealed that the elementary school administrators had very strong commitment and had outstanding managerial practices. The teachers’ job satisfaction was very high. It also revealed that there was a significant relationship between administrators commitment and teachers’ job satisfaction; and between administrators’ managerial practices and teachers’ job satisfaction.

Interactive Physics Computer Simulations (IPCS): An Alternative Method of Teaching High School Physics

Submitted by: Ranel T. Abellar Email: rabellar2000@yahoo.com
University/Organization: West Visayas State University/Philippine Science High School Western Visayas Campus Location: Iloilo City

This quantitative, quasi-experimental research aimed to study the academic performance of 60 sophomore students in physics at the Philippine Science High School Western Visayas Campus during the third quarter of School Year 2011-2012. A total of two (2) sections with thirty students each were considered in this study. One section (30 students) was subjected to treatment A (Interactive Physics Computer Simulations or IPCS) specifically using the PhET (Physics Education Technology) project of the University of Colorado method, and the other section (30 students) adopted the Traditional (lecture , discussion, and demonstration) Method of teaching physics . The choice whether a certain group would be subjected to IPCS or traditional teaching strategy was done through a toss- coin method. The intervention was conducted from November 14, 2011 to December 12, 2011. This mixed pretest-posttest method of research utilized a researcher-made achievement test on selected topics in physics .The statistical tools employed were mean and standard deviation for descriptive statistics; and t-test for independent samples at 0.05 alpha level for inferential statistics. The study revealed that the pretest achievement scores of both IPCS and traditional groups were comparable, showing the homogeneity of the two groups in terms of pre-knowledge in physics.
There was no significant difference between the pretest scores of the two groups and between the posttest scores of the two groups; however, the IPCS group had a higher class mean compared to that of the traditional group. There was significant difference in the mean gain between the IPCS and the traditional group, with the IPCS having a higher mean gain compared to that of the latter group after the treatment.

Common Psychological Well-Being Practices of College Students of West Visayas State University-Calinog Campus

Submitted by: Rome B. Moralista , M.A.Ed. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras, Ph.D. Gabriel C. Deleriarte, Ed.D. Email: jerlynagustar@yahoo.com
University/Organization: wvsu-calinog campus Location: calinog iloilo

This study determined the common psychological well-being practices and the extent of observation of the college students of West Visayas State University Calinog Campus, Calinog, Iloilo for the school year 2008-2009. The respondents were the three hundred (300) randomly selected college students representing the twenty five (25) percent of the total college population. They were taken as an entire group and classified as to sex, year level and course. The instrument used to determined the common psychological well-being practices of college student was a researcher-made questionnaire duly validated and pre-tested with a Cronbach Alpha of 0.85 signifying a high reliability of the questionnaire. The descriptive statistical tools employed were the mean, standard deviation, and rank; t-test and F-test (ANOVA) were used as inferential statistics set at 0.05 level of significance. Generally, the findings revealed that the common psychological well-being practices usually observed by college students were enumerated according to rank as follows: I feel good about myself; I am smarter and can take care of myself; I look forward to getting out of bed in the morning; when I feel down, I have someone that I can talk to; I manage stressful events in an appropriate way. The practices that were never observed were: When I get angry, I shout at people close to me; I tend to blame others for things that go wrong in my life; I think life is not worth all its troubles; and when things go wrong, it’s usually my fault. Findings further revealed that as an entire group and when classified as to sex, year level and course, the college students “sometimes” observed the common psychological well-being practices. Finally, no significant differences were noted in the observation of the common psychological well-being practices when students were classified as to sex, year level, and course.
Keywords: common psychological well-being practices, college students, west visayas state university calinog campus, sex, year level, course.

COURSE PREFERENCES OF INCOMING COLLEGE FRESHMEN IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF CALINOG

Submitted by: Dr. Gabriel C. Delariarte Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Uyhamco Mary Jean Cataluña Engr. Magdalena P. Cataluña Prof. Remedios Catamin Mrs. Mila Armada Margarita Cerbolles Mrs. Ophelia Julit Email: delariartegabriel@yahoo.com
University/Organization: wvsu- calinog campus Location: calinog, iloilo philippines

This study aimed to determine the course preferences of incoming freshmen students for the school year 2006-2007 from the different high schools from the municipality of Calinog with 278 respondents. This is a descriptive research, used the mean and ranking method. The instrument used was a researcher made questionnaire based on Lastrilla, et al (2204) study and was conducted February 2007 among the different secondary schools of Calinog, Iloilo. The study used mean and ranking method as statistical tools. Results show that among the recommended Bachelor of Science (BS) courses to be offered at West Visayas State University. Bachelor of Science in Nursing ranks first because it is most in demand abroad. BS Commerce, Criminology, BS Tourism and BS Journalism rank second, third, fourth and fifth respectively. The respondents’ reasons for choosing a school are the following: Quality instruction offered, Parents’ choice, nearness or proximity, “barkadas” and affordable tuition fees rank first, second, third, fourth and fifth respectively when they are taken as an entire group and when they are classified as to sex and education of parents. When they are classified as to type of school, “quality” is the number one reason for respondents from the public schools while those from the private school is “parents’ choice”. The respondents’ consideration in choosing a course when
they are taken as an entire group and when classified as to certain categories, have the same considerations in choosing a course. These are “My Interest”, “Family Income”, “Parents’ Choice”, “My Grades”, “My Financer told me so” and “Job Opportunities” with ranks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.. As an entire group and when classified as to variables, the most preferred course in Calinog campus is BSHRM, followed by BSIT (Information Technology) and BEEd (Bachelor of Elementary Education) with ranks second and third respectively. BSEd ranked 4th with English as the most preferred and Mathematics as the least preferred major area of concentration. BSA ranked last with Crop Science as the more preferred major area. Vocational Technology courses preferred by the respondents to be offered in Calinog Campus is Nursing Aide by the entire group. Males prefer Automotive while females prefer Nursing Aide. It is also preferred by those whose parents are HS graduates and below. Those whose fathers are in college level and above prefer Nursing Aide while those whose mothers are college level and above prefer Agricultural Technology. Respondents from the public prefer Nursing Aide while those from the private prefer Automotive. For the BS courses preferred by the respondents, the entire group prefers BS Nursing and the same is true for the females. Males prefer BS Engineering. Those with parents under the different levels of education prefer the same BS course, the BS Nursing. Respondents from the public school prefer BS Nursing while those from the private prefer BS Military/Criminology.
Keywords: course preferences, incoming college freshmen, municipality of calinog.