FACTORS AND PATTERNS OF MUSLIMS MIGRATION IN THREE CITIES OF BATANGAS PROVINCE
JEREMIAS GONZALES TANDUG
(Instructor, College of Education)
CHED-UPLB Zonal Research Center – LIPA CITY COLLEGES
This study was conceptualized to analyze the profile, the migration patterns, and the factors-push and pull factors influencing the migration of Muslims from Mindanao to the cities of Batangas, namely Lipa, Batangas and Tanauan City.
The study used descriptive survey method with the three cities of Batangas Province research as sites. The sample size is 222 Muslim migrants from Batangas City, 338 from Lipa City, and 254 from Tanauan City. Furthermore, the respondents were identified using the purposive sampling.
The findings of the study revealed that majority of Muslim migrants in Batangas, Lipa, and Tanauan City were from Marawi, Maranaos, females, in their thirties, traders, had been in the city for four years or more, and were members of low income families. With regard to their educational attainment, majority of the Muslim Migrants in Batangas and Lipa City had attended or graduated from high school, while those from Tanauan City had reached college level.
The result of the study also revealed that the prominent migration pattern of Muslim migrants in Batangas, Lipa, and Tanauan cities is that from their point of origin, they migrated first to Mindanao cities, next to Visayas cities, then to Metro Manila and lastly settled in any of the cities of Batangas province.
Finally, the analysis of the factors of Muslim migration namely: economic, personal, political and psychosocial, revealed that political factors were relevant to Muslim migration in Batangas City, psychosocial factors in Lipa City and economic factors in Tanauan City.
Keywords: factors, patterns, Muslim migration
People tend to move from one place to another for different reasons. They go from one country to another or from one place to another within a country because of poverty, violence, economic opportunity, better living conditions or for greater security. This phenomenon is called human migration. Some notable international issues regarding migration were the Mexico-US migration phenomenon and the trans-border migration from Bangladesh to India. On the other hand, in a specific country, migration may have the pattern of urban-to-rural or rural-to-urban. The latter is the most dominant pattern of migration in the Philippines which could be attributed largely to economic situation.
In the Philippines, it is a fact that there are lots of Bicolanos, Ilocanos, Ilonggos, Cebuanos, Muslims and the like who migrate to urban areas. However, the migration of Muslims always catches the attention of people in urban areas. What make them different from the rest are their religion, traditions, beliefs and most of all the issues concerning Muslim terrorism.
The League of Cities in the Philippines (Cities, 2008) noted in their conference, that several cities such as Baguio, Cagayan de Oro and Zamboanga experienced or registered an uptrend of rural-to-urban or urban-to-urban migration. According to reports, Baguio City registered an uptrend of rural-to-urban migration of Muslims in the last five decades. However, in Cagayan De Oro (CDO) City, displaced Muslim people moved closer to the city due to armed conflict from the neighboring provinces. While in Zamboanga, the city government received the “halaws” (forced repatriates from Sabah) at an alarming rate. Zamboangueños noticed that the halaws were draining the city’s resources since most of them still desire to go back to Sabah. On the contrary, the city recognized their potentials and hoped that they could become productive Zamboangueños.
According to the Office of Muslim Affairs (OMA) 2000, statistics showed that 69,561 or 59% of the Muslim migrants population are in Region 4 especially in Region IV A or CALABARZON area (Internal Displacement, 2008). This population ranked number 1 in Luzon area, which was more than the number of Muslim migrants in Metro Manila. This situation was considered a phenomenon especially in Batangas Province which is situated in CALABARZON area.
Economically, Batangas province is a first class province in the Philippines that is located at the southwestern part of Luzon in the CALABARZON region. Its capital is Batangas City and is bordered by the provinces of Cavite and Laguna to the north and Quezon to the east. Moreover, across the Verde Island Passages to the south is the island of Mindoro and to the west lies the South China Sea.
Batangas is also one of the most popular tourist destinations near Metro Manila. The province is a few hour-drive from Manila. It has many beaches and is famous for its excellent diving spots. Some of the more notable ones are Anilao, in the Municipality of Mabini, Matabungkay in the Municipality of Lian, Punta Fuego in the Municipality of Nasugbo and Laiya in the Municipality of San Juan.
In terms of economy, the CALABARZON (Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal and Quezon) project has been instrumental in bringing economic movement to Batangas through its activities on the agricultural, livestock, fishery, manufacturing, commerce, mining, tourism and other services like infrastructure sectors as water, transportation, telecommunications, energy and utilities and social sectors as education, health services and livelihood development and the like. Today, the Batangas Bay’s strategic location provides direct and easy way to inter-island and foreign trade via the operation of the Port of Batangas. Thus, the Batangas Port becomes the gateway to many islands specifically, Mindoro, Western Visayas and Romblon under the Philippine Nautical Highway Program or the “Roll On-Roll Off” program of the government. Moreover, in Batangas Province, Santo Tomas, Batangas whose proximity to the three cities of Batangas province is considered the cross road of “Roll On-Roll Off” program as it offers better access in going to Mindanao Island. These conditions make Batangas province accessible to any point of the Philippine Islands.
The economic progress in Batangas Province continues to accelerate due to the remarkable influx of industrialization brought about by positive economic climate and strategic location which are stimulating factors of development in the three cities of Batangas namely: Batangas City, Lipa City and Tanauan City. Thus, the province of Batangas is an attractive destination of migration.
In one of the issues of the Vision (October, 2009), a school paper of Lipa City Colleges, a journalistic investigation was conducted regarding Muslim migrants in Lipa City. According to the said investigation, some of the reasons why Muslims migrated in these cities were fear and chaos from their place of origin, Mindanao terrorism and bombing. In addition, the paper stated that according to the president of Muslim community, the number of Muslim settlers in Lipa City had reached two to three thousand in a span of five to six years. The same is true with Batangas City and Tanauan City. Most of the migrants were composed of merchandisers selling DVD’s and accessories at a very low price. Others were capitalists. The paper also noted that these Muslim migrants were already able to create a community of their own in each of the three cities of Batangas Province. They clustered in one place and in fact built a mosque where they can worship every day.
At present, a lot of positive and negative attitudes/feedbacks involving the presence of Muslim migrants are being discussed over the radios and in schools. These issues are heightened because of the current social upheavals and political constraints in Mindanao. News and accounts of massacre, terrorism, and kidnapping have been screaming on national newspapers and televisions. These created an image to some non-Muslims, that Muslims are dangerous people. Similarly, there have been reports of frictions between Muslim migrants and non-Muslims in the community where both live. However, whether these cities accept their presence or not, their number continue to increase and difficulties often occur in business, culture and in local politics.
With these scenarios, the researcher deeply recognized the necessity of conducting this study of profiling the Muslim migrants in the three cities of Batangas and determining the factors affecting their migration and their migration patterns. The researcher believed that the findings of this study would serve as a benchmark in integrating Muslims in the community and eventually become instrumental in making both the government and Muslim migrants fully utilize the latter’s presence, to be productive and to live harmoniously with other people.
Objectives of the Study
The study aimed to analyze the factors and migration patterns of Muslims in the three cities of Batangas Province. Specifically, the following were the specific objectives of the study: (a) To establish a profile of the Muslim migrants in the three cities of Batangas province; (b) To determine the migration pattern of the Muslim migrants in the three cities of Batangas province; and (c) To identify migration factors (push And pull factors) of Muslims from Mindanao to the cities of Batangas, Lipa and Tanauan.
The objective of this study was to assess the migration of Muslims in the three cities of Batangas Province, their profile, migration patterns, and the factors affecting the migration-the push and the pull factors. Thus, this study used the descriptive survey method, specifically as its research design. Generally, this study was a qualitative research.
According to James P. Key of Oklahoma State University (2006), descriptive survey research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe “what exists” with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. In this study the phenomenon that was referred to was the migration of the Muslims in the three cities of Batangas Province. The methods involved were the survey and interview which described the status of the phenomenon. Moreover, Krathwohl (2003) explained that descriptive survey research has three main purposes and these are to describe, explain, and validate findings. Besides, the discussion or description emerged from and followed creative exploration and served to organize the findings in order to fit them with explanations and then tested or validated those explanations. He added that many research studies call for the description of natural or man-made phenomena such as their form, structure, activity, over time change and their relation to other phenomena.
Hence, the researcher believed that the descriptive survey method was the most appropriate design for this study.
Subjects of the Study
The population of the study was the Muslim migrants of the three cities of Batangas Province namely: Tanauan City, Lipa City and Batangas City.
According to the record of estimates of the City Planning Office (CPO)/Statistics Office (SO)/City Social Welfare and Development (CSWD), the Muslim population in Batangas City is more or less 1000 while in Lipa City, it has already reached around 2,500 to 3,000, and in Tanauan City, it has an approximation of 600 to 700 people or Muslim migrants. Accordingly, using the estimates, the sample size was computed using the Slovene’s formula at 5% margin of error. The result of the computation revealed a sample size of 222 Muslim migrants for Batangas City, 338 in Lipa City, and 254 in Tanauan City. A total sample size of 814 was used in the study. Furthermore, the respondents were identified using the purposive sampling, that only those Muslim migrants aging 18 years old and above were included in the sample.
In the case of unstructured interviews, the respondents were persons or individuals who were knowledgeable regarding the deeper causes of the phenomenon. These persons were leaders of the Muslim migrants, the council of elders, the members of the Zakat organization, ordinary Muslims, and public officials who had enough knowledge regarding the reasons of their migration.
Data Gathering Instrument and Procedure
The research instruments used in gathering the data were the survey questionnaire and the unstructured interview.
The study made use of the survey questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument. The first part was for the profiling of the Muslim which included age, gender, tribe/clan, social classes, place of origin, occupation, educational attainment and number of years of stay in the city. The second part was for the migration pattern wherein the respondents indicated their major stops from their point of origin to their present residence. These major stops were their city stops where they stayed one month or longer before going to another place. The third part was for the factors influencing their migration, the push and pull factors. These push and pull factors were further categorized into economic, personal, political and psychosocial.
To analyze and interpret the push and pull factors that influence the Muslim migrants, the Likert scale below was used.
Scale Weight Verbal Interpretations
4.20 – 5.00 5 Very Relevant Factor
3.40 – 4.19 4 Relevant Factor
2.60 – 3.39 3 Moderately Relevant Factor
1.80 – 2.59 2 Fairly Relevant
1.00 – 1.79 1 Not relevant
In the case of determining the flow of migration pattern of Muslim migrants, each group of respondents from one point of origin were grouped according to their major stops, and the same system was done until they reached their final stop.
On the other hand, the survey questionnaire was first validated using the face validation. This validation required the researcher to have the questionnaire checked by at least three persons in authority. After all suggestions were considered, the questionnaire was subjected to a dry run and the result was statistically validated using the Cronbach Alpha test. The result showed that the alpha value was 0.895 which was greater than the Alpha value of 0.70. This implied that the reliability of the questionnaire was high.
Relatively, an unstructured interview was conducted in order for the researcher to have an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon, especially on some gray areas after doing the survey analysis.
In the treatment of the different data gathered, the following tools were used.
For the survey analysis of the factors of Muslim migration to the community, the data were treated using the:
1. Frequency Count. This was used to present data clearly and accurately in group from each specified class or category;
2. Percentage. This was utilized to determine the relationship of the frequency over the total population;
3. Ranking. This was used to arrange data in a series according to importance either in ascending or descending order. In this study, the item with the highest frequency or weighted mean was ranked the highest; and
4. Weighted Mean. This tool was employed to present the gathered data into a single data which became the basis of interpretation of each variable involved in the study.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
1. Profile of the Muslim Migrants in the three cities of Batangas Province
Profile of Muslim Migrants in Batangas City. The profile of the respondents in Batangas City showed that majority of the Muslim migrants were Maranaos, on their thirties, female, lower income families, and had attended or graduated from high school. The data also revealed that majority settled in the said city for four years or more. Their point of origin was Marawi in Mindanao and they were mostly traders or merchandisers.
Profile of Muslim Migrants in Lipa City. The data indicated that majority of the Muslim migrants originated from Marawi, therefore they were Maranaos, traders or merchandisers, 21 years old and above, female, lower income families, had attended or graduated from high school, , and stayed in the city for 4 years or more.
Profile of Muslim Migrants in Tanauan City. The findings signified that majority of Muslim migrants in Tanauan City were from Marawi. They were Maranaos, traders, 31 years old and above, female, college level, lower income families, and stayed in Tanauan City for four or more years.
2. Migration Pattern of Muslim Migrants in the Three Cities of Batangas Province
Batangas City’s Muslim Migration Pattern. The migration pattern of Muslim migrants from their point of origin (Marawi, Iligan, Digos City, Zamboanga, and Lanao del Sur) to Batangas City showed that 39.4 percent of the Muslim migrants stayed first in Western Visayas Cities. However, of the 39.4 percent of the Muslim migrants, 28.4 percent had passed by Metro Manila before settling in Batangas City, while 11 percent settled right away in Batangas City. Further observation revealed that 25.2 percent went to Central Visayas Cities then settled in Batangas City. Also, from the same point of origin, another 25 percent of the Muslim migrants in Batangas City migrated first to Mindanao Cities. However, 23.8 percent went to Central Visayas Cities before residing in Batangas City, while 1.2 percent decided to go directly to Batangas City. Finally, from the point of origin, 10.4 percent of the Muslim migrants went directly to Batangas City.
The data signified that most of the Muslim migrants from Batangas City had a migration pattern of – from point of origin they migrated first to Western Visayas cities and majority had passed all the way through Metro Manila before settling in Batangas City.
Figure 1: Summary of Muslim Migration from their Point of Origin to
Lipa City’s Muslim Migration Pattern. Majority or 54.4 percent of the Muslim migrants from their point of origin (Marawi, Iligan, Digos City, Zamboanga, and Lanao del Sur) migrated first to Mindanao Cities. Of the 54.4 percent, 12.8 percent moved first to Metro Manila then to Lipa City, while the remaining 41.6 percent went directly to Lipa City. Whereas, the least number of Muslim migrants or 8.6 percent of them settled directly in Lipa City from their point of origin.
Figure 2: Summary of Muslim Migration Pattern from Point of Origin to
Tanauan City’s Muslim Migration Pattern. The migration patterns of Muslim migrants from the point of origin (Marawi, Iligan, Digos City, Zamboanga, and Lanao del Sur) to Tanauan City showed that majority or 90 percent had migrated first to Mindanao cities. Of the 90 percent, 2.0 percent had stayed for a while in Central Visayas cities, 2.8 percent went to Batangas City, 4.6 percent moved to Lipa City, 49.4 percent had travelled to Metro Manila and 31.2 percent had resided for a while in Western Visayas cities. After those places, they finally settled in Tanauan City.
Figure 3: Summary of Migration Pattern of Muslim Migrants from their
Point of Origin to Tanauan City
The summary of the migration of Muslim migrants from their point of origin ((Marawi, Iligan, Digos City, Zamboanga, and Lanao del Sur) to any cities of Batangas Province indicated a pattern that from their point of origin they stayed first in Mindanao cities, then to Visayas cities, next to Metro Manila, then end up in any three cities of Batangas Province.
This migration of Muslims was possible because of the accessibility of transportation such as shipping lines servicing Mindanao-Visayas- Metro Manila or the Nautical Highway, the “Roll on-Roll off” system from Mindanao to Metro Manila or Visayas region.
Figure 4: Summary of Migration Pattern of Muslim Migrants from their
Point of Origin to Cities of Batangas Province
3. Factors Influencing the Muslim Migration in the Cities of Batangas, Lipa and Tanauan City
Muslim Migrants in Batangas City. Economic factors were considered relevant causes of Muslim migration in Batangas City. The push factors considered relevant were insufficient employment opportunities way back home, their belief that migration to other places exceeded the costs, and scarcity or inadequate access to land and resources in their hometown. On the other hand, Batangas City provided these opportunities plus the proximity of the place to Metro Manila and from the place where they came from.
Muslim migrants believed that personal factors were moderately relevant to their migration. One of the reasons why they left their hometown was the unemployment or underemployment in their place of origin which is contrary to what Batangas could provide. Besides, their friends or relatives have already migrated or moved to Batangas. They assumed that it is a good place for retirement, that it had generous people and better access to education because of the safety and security in this place. These pull-factors of Batangas City were considered relevant in their decision to migrate.
Political factors that have pushed Muslims to migrate were considered moderately relevant. What made them migrate to Batangas City were the promise of extended liberties, better peace and order situation and freedom to organize/move against oppressive forces of the place. In conclusion, political factors were relevant to their decision to transfer to Batangas City.
With regard to the psychosocial factors, they considered exposure to violence or anti-social behavior such as very limited government services as relevant factor why they chose to leave their hometown. However, the push factors they experienced in their point of origin were in contrast to what Batangas City has in the forms of social support and networks. The data pointed out that psychosocial factor was moderately relevant in their decision to stay in Batangas City.
In summary, Muslim migrants regarded political and economic factors relevant in their migration while they considered personal and psychosocial factors moderately relevant in their decision to settle in Batangas City. Conclusively, the four factors: political, economic, personal, and psychosocial were moderately relevant in the decision of the Muslim migrants to reside in Batangas City.
Muslim Migrants in Lipa City. Statistically and economically speaking, the Muslim migrants in Lipa City considered scarcity or inadequate access to land and resources at home, investment decision and the information they gathered which they believed they will be better off when they migrate, as the push factors. In contrast, the pull factors that made them decide to stay in Lipa City were the accessibility of markets, job opportunities, proximity of the place from where they came from, access to land and natural resources and the accessibility of the place especially on the source of their merchandise.
In addition, Muslim migrants in Lipa City decided to leave their place of origin because of poverty, political motives (such as to escape dictatorship), unemployment and underemployment. These factors were considered relevant personal factors in their decision to migrate. Concomitantly, they believed that the generosity of the people in Lipa City, access to facilities and amenities (such as social services and transport) and safety and security of the place were considered relevant factors in pulling them to migrate to this place.
Moreover, political conflict and political persecution were relevant factors why Muslim migrants left their place. Likewise, they considered Lipa City’s political stability, good political climate and freedom to organize/move against oppressive forces as relevant pull factors in their migration. These political factors were considered relevant in the migration of Muslims to Lipa City.
Furthermore, the Muslim migrants decided to leave their hometown because of their experience on community violence or anti-social behavior such as aggression and isolation from friends, family and relatives. They were also exposed to discrimination in terms of salary (lower salaries compared to non-Muslims), government services (service received was very limited) and jobs (opportunities were less compared to non-Muslims) and inequalities in the distribution of wealth and benefits. These push factors were relevant in their decision to migrate. On the contrary, the atmosphere with less exposure to discrimination and less contact to anti-social behavior pulled them to Lipa City. In general, the psychosocial factors were relevant to Muslim migrants’ decision to reside in Lipa City.
In summary, the psychosocial, economic and political factors were relevant to the decision of Muslim migrants to settle in Lipa City despite the fact that personal factors were considered moderately relevant. Whereas, the four factors in general were moderately relevant in the choice of the migrant Muslims to reside in Lipa City.
Muslim Migrants in Tanauan City. The following economic factors were considered by the Muslim migrants very relevant when they left their place in exchange of Tanauan City: insufficient employment opportunities, scarcity or inadequate access to land and resources, improvement in financial situation by seeking employment in other places and their belief that migrating to other places exceeded the costs. The only relevant factor why they left their place was their belief through the information gathered that they will be better off by doing so. In contrast, the economic conditions of Tanauan City such as access to facilities and amenities (social services and transport), the generosity of the people in the community, access to education and safety and security, heightened their desire to settle in Tanauan City. Besides, their friends or relatives were living in the said community. To encapsulate, the economic factors were considered very relevant to Muslim migration in Tanauan City.
Furthermore, the relevant personal factors that have pushed the Muslim migrants to leave their place of residence were poverty, unemployment and underemployment. On the other hand, the pull factors such as opportunities as resident, opportunities for better job and business and access to markets have attracted Muslims to Tanauan City and were considered very relevant. Although the strength of local labor market and access to land and natural resources were considered as relevant only, these are also factors why they stayed in Tanauan City. In general, personal factors were moderately relevant to Muslim migration in Tanauan City.
Additionally, political instability or civil unrest, persecution, terrorism, suppression of individual rights and freedom and political conflict were moderately relevant in pushing Muslims to migrate. What attracted them most to Tanauan City were the good political climate and stability, extended liberties, good peace and order situation, freedom to discuss politics and the organization/movement against oppressive forces. Generally, the Muslim migrants regarded political factors relevant in migrating to Tanauan City.
Moreover, the Muslim migrants considered the presence of family members who were supportive of their decision to migrate a relevant psychosocial push factor. Whereas, the absence or less exposure to discrimination and anti-social behavior and the presence of social support and networks of the city were considered relevant pull factors of Tanauan City. However, in most cases, psychosocial factors were moderately relevant to Muslim migrants to come to a decision of settling in Tanauan City.
Of the four factors, Muslim migrants considered economic and political factors relevant in their migration, whereas, personal and psychosocial factors were moderately relevant. Generally, the aforementioned four factors were moderately relevant in the decision of Muslims to migrate in the cities of Batangas, Lipa and Tanauan.
From the different findings and interpretations of the gathered data, the following conclusions were drawn.
1. The greater part of Muslim migrants in Batangas, Lipa, and Tanauan cities are from Marawi, Maranaos, females, in their thirties, traders, had been in the city for four years or more, and are members of low income families. With regard to their educational attainment, majority of the Muslim Migrants in Batangas and Lipa cities had attended or graduated from high school, while those from Tanauan City had reached college level.
2. Majority of the Muslim migrants in Batangas, Lipa, and Tanauan cities had this migration pattern: From their point of origin (Marawi, Iligan, Digos City, Zambaonga, and Lanao del Sur), they migrated first to Mindanao cities, then to Visayas cities, next to Metro Manila and finally settled in any of the cities of Batangas province.
3. The push factors of Muslim migration in Batangas City were the insufficient employment opportunities, unemployment or underemployment, the belief that migration exceeded the cost, the scarcity or inadequate access to land and resources and exposure to community violence or anti-social behavior such as limited government services. On the contrary, the pull factors such as equal opportunities as resident and for better business, strong local labor market, better job opportunities, access to markets, proximity of the place from where they came from, access to land and natural resources, information that their friends or relatives were residents of the community, a good place for retirement, generosity of the people, access to education, safety and security, good political climate, promise of extended liberties, better peace and order situation, freedom to organize/move against oppressive forces and social support and networks of the city attracted Muslim migrants to settle in Batangas City. These factors were considered relevant to Muslim migration in Batangas City.
With regard to Muslim migrants in Lipa City, the relevant push factors that compelled them to leave their place of origin were as follows: scarcity or inadequate access to land and resources; investment decision; their belief, through the information gathered, that they would be better off by doing so; unemployment or underemployment; political motives ( to escape dictatorship); poverty; political conflict and persecution; exposure to community violence or anti-social behavior such as isolation from friends, family and relatives; aggression; exposure to discrimination in terms of lower salaries compared to non-Muslims; very limited government services; insufficient jobs; and inequalities in the distribution of wealth and benefits. In contrast, the pull factors of Lipa City which were relevant to Muslim migrant’s decision to migrate were the opportunities given to its residents in terms of services, the proximity of the place from where they came from, better job opportunities, access to markets, land and natural resources of the place, access to facilities and amenities such as social services and transport, generosity of the people in the community, safety and security, good political climate and political stability, freedom to organize/move against oppressive forces, social support and networks of the city, and the absence or less contact to anti-social behavior and exposure to discrimination.
Finally, in Tanauan City, the push factors which were considered to be very relevant in pushing Muslim migrants to depart from their place of origin were: scarcity or inadequate access to land and resources; the belief that migration to other places exceeded the cost; investment decision; insufficient employment opportunities; and their belief that seeking employment improves one’s financial situation. In addition, the push factors like, the belief through the information gathered that they will be better off in doing so, poverty, unemployment or underemployment and the supportive family in their decision to migrate, were also relevant in the decision of Muslim migrants in leaving their hometown. Conversely, the pull factors of Tanauan City which were considered by the Muslim migrants to be very relevant were: opportunities as resident and for better business, access to markets, better facilities and amenities (such as social services and transport), opportunities to education, generosity of the people, safety and security, good political climate and political stability, promise of extended liberties, better peace and order situation, freedom to discuss politics, freedom to organize/move against oppressive forces, and the absence or less exposure to violence. These factors highly augmented their decision to migrate to Tanauan City. However, the strength of local labor market, access to land and natural resources, information about their friends or relatives who were residents of the community, social support and networks of the city, and absence or less contact or exposure to anti-social behavior and to discrimination were also considered to be relevant pull factors why Muslim migrants stayed in Tanauan City.
1. The CSWD, treasurer’s office, city planning office, and barangay records section where Muslim migrants reside should create a separate record on taxes, population, business licenses, to name a few, involving Muslims and other migrants, to facilitate data collection as regards the impact of their migration especially in the area of economy and revenues of the barangay and of the city.
2. The city government should create a policy or law to address the needs of the Muslim and other migrants in the city to make them productive and become one of the key factors in the economic development of the city.
3. That the city government will create a task force committee for Muslim migrants that will serve as bridge between the former and the latter, whose main functions are:
a. to disseminate different programs of the national and city government especially in the areas of education and health sanitation to benefit in and take pleasure from.
b. to strengthen the collaboration between the Muslim migrants and the city government concerning problems involving peace and order situation and interpersonal relationship between Muslim migrants and city residents.
c. to formulate short and long term plans for Muslim migrants such as to integrate them to the community, to make them productive and to have harmonious relationship among themselves and the community residents.
4. To the future researchers, that the data in this study will serve as benchmark to conduct another research focusing on formulation of long and short term plans to fully integrate these Muslim migrants to the community.
Agoncillo, Teodoro (1990). History of the Filipino People. R. P. Garcia Press
(Downloaded may 20, 2011), Amazon.com Amazon.com
Aycocho, Cecille, (2004). Understanding the Mindanao Insurgency. OG5
Arjan De Haan (2002). Migration And Livelihoods in Historical Perspective: A
Case Study Of Bihar, India. The Journal of Development Studies /
Routledge, Bihar, India
Abubakar, Asiri J. 2000. Bangsa Sub, Sabah and Sulu’s quest for peace and
Autonomy in Southern Philippines. PhD dissertation, University of the Philippines.
Ahmad, Aijaz, (1982). Class and Colony in Mindanao.Southeast Asia.
Chronicle No. 82:4-11.
Bautista, Maria Cynthia Rose Banzon, (2005). Ideologically Motivated
Conflicts In The Philippines: Exploring The Possibility of An Early Warning
System. Human Development Network Foundation, Inc., for the Philippine Human Development Report
Barrios-Fabian, Ma. Luisa D.,(2004). Case Study of Zamboanga City (Forced
Migration Area). Philippine Institute for Development Studies, Published paper, PIDS Library
Blom, A., Freudenberger, M., Ruggiero, R., (2007). A case Study on Central African
Republic Including Dzanga-Sangha Special Dense Forest Reserve. 2007 World Wildlife Fund Inc. and Conservation International, Washington DC.
Boswell, Christina (2008). Combining Economics and Sociology in Migration
Theory.University of Edinburgh. Journal of Ethnic and Migration
Studies. Downloaded January 12, 2010
Balin, Ryan, (2010). State Immigration and Immigrant Flows: An Analysis.
Johns Hopkins University
Bauder, Harald, (2006). Labor Movement: How Migration Regulates Labor
Markets. New York: Oxford University Press,
Borrmans, Maurice, (1981). Guidelines for Christians and Muslims (Pontifical
Council for Interreligious Dialogue. New York: Paulist Press
Card, David and Dustmann, Christian, (2009). Peak Period of Migration and
Religion. Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration, USA (Dowmloaded from http://www.econ.ucl.ac.uk/cream/pages/CDP/ CDP_ 29_09.pdf, May 20, 2011)
Camarota, Steven A., (1998). Rotten Boroughs: Immigration’s Effect on the
Redistribution of House Seats. Center for Immigration Studies, USA. I mmigration Review no. 33
Coll, Cynthia G., Magnuson, Katherine, (2008). The Psychological Experience of
Immigration: A Developmental Perspective. Brown University, USA
Costello, Michael A. (1992). The demography of Mindanao: Land of Unfulfilled
Promise. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers.
Curran, S.R. and Agardy, T, (2002). Common Property Systems, migration,
and Coastal Ecosystems. Ambio
De La Torre, Miguel, (2009). Trails of Hope and Terror: Testimonies on
Immigration. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Press.
Datta, Pranati, (2003). Push-Pull Factors of Undocumented Migration from
Bangladesh to West Bengal: A Perception Study. Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India
Ellen, Ruth W.,(2007). Noncitizen Eligibility for Federal Public Assistance:
Policy Overview and Trends (RL33809). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service,
Ewing, Walter A, (2006). Border Insecurity: U.S. Border-Enforcement Policies
and National Security. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, Spring
Fenn, M., Freudenberger, M., Pierson, O., Talbot, J., and Tomasek, A.,
(2009). A Case Study on Africa and Madagascar. 2007 World Wildlife Fund Inc. and Conservation International, Washington DC.
Gumbo, D., Moyo, N., Lwartula, C., (2008). A case Study on Zambia Copper
Belt Region. 2007 World Wildlife Fund Inc. and Conservation International, Washington DC
Hardcastle, J., Long, B., and Hickey, V., (2007). A Case Study on Vietnam
Greater Annamites Ecoregion. 2007 World Wildlife Fund Inc. and Conservation International, Washington DC.
Karakayali, Nedim (2005). Duality and Diversity in the Lives of Immigrant
Children: Rethinking the ‘Problem of Second Generation’ in Light of Immigrant Autobiographies. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology
Key, James P. (1997). Research Design in Occupational Education. Oklahoma
Kendra Van Wagner, (2007). Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
Psychosocial Development in Infancy and Early Childhood. About.com
Kelley, Angela M., (2007). The Economic Impact Of Immigration. Imigration
Policy Center, USA.
Ferrer, Miriam Coronel (1997). The SPCPD (Southern Philippines Council for
Peace and Development): A Response to the Controversy. University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies, Quezon City
Latapí, Agustín E, Martin, Philip, Castro, Gustavo L., & Donato, Katharine,
(2006). Factors that Influence Migration. Downloaded January 15, 2010.
Ostro, L., Hart, T. Tshombe, R., (2006). A case Study on Democratics
Republic of Congo Okapi Faunal Forest. 2007 World Wildlife Fund Inc. and Conservation International, Washington DC.
Macaayong, Habib W., (2004). Trade and Investment in a Philippine Institute
for Globalized Setting: Philippine Experience in Muslim Areas. Philippine Institute for Development Studies Philippine Institute for Development Studies, Published in 2004 as Discussion Paper, PIDS
Mendoza, Myrma Jean A., (2004). “Ethnic Identity Among Marginal Maranaos
in Iligan City”. P Presented in Palma Hall 109, 21 October 2004
Miyamoto, Masaru, (1990). Manila Muslim Community [Muslim community in
Manila]. In Shakaijinruigaku no Kanousei I: Rekishi no nakano Shakai [Possibility of social-anthropology I: Society in history], ed. K. Sudo, S. Yamashita, and M. Yoshioka, 178-199. Tokyo: Kobundo.
Majul, Cesar Adib (1985). The Contemporary Muslim Movement in the
Philippines. Mizan Press, Berkeley, USA
McKenna, Thomas, (2004). Muslim Rulers and Rebels: Everyday Politics and
Armed Separatism in the Southern Philippines, Muslims in Baguio.
Sunstar, December 2009 issue
McKenna, Thomas M. (1998). Muslim Rulers and Rebels: Everyday Politics
and Armed Separatism in the Southern Philippines. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA
McKenna, Thomas M., (1998). Muslim Rulers and Rebels: Everyday Politics
and Armed Separatism in the Southern Philippines. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Muslim, Madapado A.1999. Sustaining the constituency for Moro autonomy.
Accord: An International Review of Peace Initiatives. Posted on the internet at: http://www.c-r.org/acc_min/muslim2.htm
National Statistics Office, Republic of the Philippines1998, (2006). The 1998
Annual Poverty Indicators Survey Results. Downloaded January 15, 2010. Overview of the Region. National Statistics Office – NCR District VI
Nayga , R. C., Medrano, W. C. and Ramirez, J. L., (1997). Community and
Family Factors Influencing Family Migration in Urban Centers of Region 02. Technical Report of the Study Community and Family Factors Influencing Family Migration in Urban Centers o f Region 02
Oglethorpe,J., Ericson, J., Bilsborrow, R., and Edmond, J., (2007). People on
the move. 2007 World Wildlife Fund Inc. and Conservation International, Balmar Printing
Ortiz, Alan Tormis, (2007). Towards A Theory Of Ethnic Separatism: A Case
Study Of Muslims In The Philippines (Moro, Islam, Mindanao, Secession, Revolution). University Of Pennsylvania
Panda, Ali B., (2005). Islamic Economy: Its relevance to the Globalization of
Economy in the Muslim Filipino Areas. Philippine Institute for Development Studies, Published in 2005 as Discussion Paper, PIDS Library
PIDS Research Information Staff, (2005). Trade and Investment in a
Globalized Setting:The Experience in Muslim Mindanao. Philippine Institute for Development Studies, Published in 2005 as Newsletter/Bulletin/Periodicals, PIDS Library
Preston, Ian, (2003). Push and Pull Factors of Migration in Bengal. Centre for
Research and Analysis of Migration, USA (Dowmloaded from http://www.econ.ucl.ac.uk/cream/pages/CDP/CDP_29_09.pdf, may 20, 2011)
Rogers, S. L. , (2005). The role of Political, Economic, and Cultural Factors in
Immigration Policy in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. (downloaded from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p69384_ index.html)
Sevilla, C., Ochave, J., Punzalan, T., Regala, B., Uriarte, G. (1992). Research
Methods. Rex Printing Company, Inc., Quezon City
Symaco, Lorraine, (2005). Islamic Education in the Philippines with Reference
to Issues of Access and Mobility. University of Oxford, University Malaya
Tobler, W., (1995). Migration: Ravenstein, Thorntwaite, and Beyond. Urban Geography,
Vol. 16, No. 4 (1995), pp. 327–343.
Yin, Robert K. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Fourth
Edition.SAGE Publications. California
Williams, M.J., (2002). Technology, knowledge Systems, Population
Dynamics, and Coastal Ecosystems. Ambio.
Weekes, Richard V, (1984). Muslim Peoples: a world ethnographic survey.
Greenwood Press, Connecticut, 1984
Watanabe, Akiko, (2007). The Formation of Migrant Muslim Communities in
Metro Manila. Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World Studies
______(2000). Quickstat on Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.
Downloaded January 15, 2010. www.internal-
_____(2008). PHILIPPINES: Displacement increases as Mindanao’s peace process
stumbles on A profile of the internal displacement situation. Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC)
Downloaded January 12, 2010
_____,(2010). Manila – Migration of Muslims spurs Inter-religious Dialogue.
Downloaded May 14, 2010, WM/www.ucanews.com
_____,(2005). Economic Growth & Immigration: Bridging the
Demographic Divide. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation,
_____,(1997). Profile of Transient Population in Tuguegarao,
Cagayan. Cagayan State University, Tuguegarao, Cagayan
Short Biography of the Authors (not to exceed five lines for each.)
The author is a graduate of Bachelor of Secondary Education with specialization in Mathematics at the West Visayas State University in Iloilo City, graduated his MA in Educational Management at Xavier University-Ateneo de Cagayan, and currently pursuing his doctoral degree at the University of Batangas, Batangas City. At present, he is a Mathematics instructor in Lipa City Colleges, lipa City.
Contact Information: 09263382800
E-mail address: email@example.com